Příprava na instalaci

Tato kapitola popisuje nutné kroky před zahájením instalace. Ne každý krok je nutné přísně dodržet - např. plánujete-li využít možnosti výchozí instalace, nepotřebujete shromáždit informace o systému, jako jsou jmenovky diskových zařízení/UUID, nebo informace o síti, jako je adresa IP systému. Přesto byste si měli tuto kapitolu projít, neboť popisuje rovněž dostupné typy instalačních nosičů a jak připravit zaveditelné nosiče a instalační zdroje.

Přejít na novější verzi, nebo instalovat?

Máte-li již Fedoru nainstalovanou z dříve a tuto instalaci chcete povýšit na vyšší (aktuální) verzi, existují dva základní způsoby, jak toho dosáhnout:

Automatický přechod na vyšší verzi použitím příkazu dnf system upgrade

Upřednostňovaným způsobem, jak povýšit systém na novou verzi je automatické povýšení pomocí pomocného programu dnf system upgrade. Informace o automatickém přechodu na vyšší verzi viz wiki stránka Fedory dnf system upgrade.

Ruční reinstalace

Na nejnovější verzi Fedory lze přejít i ručně, místo spoléhání se na dnf system upgrade. To zahrnuje zavedení instalačního programu do paměti, jako byste prováděli čistou instalaci, nechat ho nalézt existující systém Fedory a přepsat kořenový diskový oddíl s uchováním dat na ostatních oddílech a svazcích. V případě potřeby lze stejný proces použít pro opětovnou instalaci systému. Podrobné informace viz Ruční přechod na vyšší verzi nebo reinstalace systému.

Před provedením přechodu na vyšší verzi nebo reinstalace systému si vždy vytvořte zálohu dat, bez ohledu na metodu, kterou si zvolíte.

Příprava zaveditelného nosiče

Obrazy Fedory jsou hybridní obrazy ISO a lze je použít k vytvoření instalačního nosiče jak z disku optického, tak USB, který lze zavést jak ze systému BIOS, tak UEFI.

Fedora Media Writer

Fedora Media Writer byl podstatně vylepšen a je nyní oficiálním, otestovaným a podporovaným způsobem, jak vytvořit zaveditelný nosič. Fedora Media Writer podporuje Linux, Mac a Windows. Jedná se o jednoduchý způsob, jak vytvořit zaveditelný nosič USB pro instalaci Fedory (nebo jiného operačního systému). Použití Fedora Media Writeru se velice doporučuje, ačkoliv jiný software pro tvorbu nosičů z USB může fungovat rovněž.

Some of the new additions to Fedora Media Writer are that Fedora Workstation and Server are easily and quickly accessible from the selection on the main screen. Further choices are available if you select the button below Custom image. This offers a selection of various Fedora Spins, such as Xfce or Mate.

Dříve byly oblíbeným způsobem tvorby instalačních USB z obrazů ISO určených pro optické nosiče univerzální nástroje pro tvorbu USB, jako např. Unetbootin. Obvykle vytvoří souborový systém na disku USB rozbalením souborů z obrazu a zapsáním na něj zavaděče syslinux.

Tyto metody obchází nastavení zavaděče vestavěného v obrazech Fedory, které jsou diskově rozděleny a navrženy tak, aby se zavedli na systémech UEFI s povoleným SecureBoot, a rovněž na systémech BIOS, a proto neposkytují shodné výsledky s obrazy Fedory, zejména pak na systémech UEFI.

Nejlepší výsledky poskytují pomocné programy, které využívají metodu přímého zápisu a nepozměňují obraz Fedory.

Vždy proveďte dvojitou kontrolu před tím, než zapíšete obraz na zařízení. Metody pro tvorbu nosičů popsané v této části jsou ničivé. Všechna data na disku USB jsou během procesu smazána, ujistěte se proto, že jste si data zazálohovali. Zkontrolujte dvakrát, že jste vybrali správné zařízení, na které se má obraz zapsat!

Instalace a spuštění Fedora Media Writeru

On Fedora

On Fedora 25 or later, Fedora Media Writer is available in the default repository. You can use dnf to install the package.

  1. To install the Fedora Media Writer using:

    $ sudo dnf install mediawriter
  2. Run the Fedora Media Writer:

    $ sudo mediawriter

    or in Gnome 3 select Activities and then click on Fedora Media Writer.

On other Linux distributions

The best way to install Fedora Media Writer on various Linux distributions is to use the pre-built Flatpak package. The package can be obtained from the official Flatpak repository Flathub.org.

  1. To setup Flatpak on your Linux system, follow the guidelines on the Flatpak documentation page.

  2. Run the application:

    $ sudo mediawriter

On Windows

  1. Download the latest Windows Installer file from GetFedora.org. The server automatically detects the running system and offers you the correct installation file for your Windows version.

  2. Run the installation by double clicking the installer, and then continue through the set-up wizard. The Wizard lets you customize the software’s installation if you choose to.

  3. Run the application by clicking on a launcher.

    In Windows 8 and 10, the Fedora Media Writer launcher will be placed in the All apps menu under F. In Windows 10, you can just type Fedora Media Writer in the search box on the task bar.

On MacOS

  1. Download the latest Macintosh Disk Image (the package will have a .dmg extension) from GetFedora.org. The server automatically detects the running system and offers a correct package for your MacOS.

  2. Open the .dmg file and copy the mediawriter file into your applications folder.

  3. Navigate to your applications directory, and then launch the Fedora Media Writer application.

  4. Select "Open" to run the program, when MacOS will ask you to confirm the action.

Writing the ISO image to the USB Media.

  1. Select the Fedora Edition you wish to make a bootable USB drive for.

    Image of Fedora Media Writer Main Screen
    Figure 1. Fedora Media Writer Main Screen: Choose your Edition of Fedora

    The main selection lets you choose one of the default Fedora editions, Fedora Workstation or Server. Fedora Media Writer displays more details about the edition before you can proceed with downloading the image and the USB creation. You can choose a different architecture, if you select Other variants.

  2. Select "Create Live USB" to proceed.

    Image of Fedora Media Writer Distro Information Screen
    Figure 2. Fedora Media Writer Distro Information

    Fedora Media Writer will automatically download the ISO for you. If you have downloaded the ISO before and placed it in the Downloads directory, it will be immediately available to use.

    Image of Fedora Media Writer Automatic Download
    Figure 3. Fedora Media Writer Automatic Download
  3. Plug in a USB drive on which you want to create the bootable media.

  4. To write the image onto the media, click the red Write to disk button.

    Image of Fedora Media Writer write to device red button
    Figure 4. Fedora Media Writer Write to USB Device

Other methods to create a live USB

Using the Fedora Media Writer is highly recommended for everybody, because it offers a reliable way to create a live USB stick for Fedora installation.

However, some experienced users may prefer to go through the creation process manually. If you decide to do so, you have to download the installation images and use an application to write them onto the USB stick.

If you have downloaded and verified the installation images manually, you still can write them onto the USB stick using Fedora Media Writer.

Downloading Boot and Installation Images

The Fedora Project offers different Editions tailored for some specific use cases. Choose the Fedora Edition best for you, or you can build your own by customizing after the installation, or by using a kickstart file as described in Creating a Kickstart File. Kickstart installation requires the netinstall media type, or a direct installation booting method such as PXE; kickstarts are not supported with live images.

Read more about Fedora Workstation, Fedora Cloud, Fedora Server and the available media types in Downloading Fedora.

You can also choose a Fedora Spin featuring favorite alternative desktops or tools for specialized tasks at https://spins.fedoraproject.org.

Verifying the Downloaded Image

Because transmission errors or other problems may corrupt the Fedora image you have downloaded, it is important to verify the file’s integrity. After the images are created, an operation is performed on the file that produces a value called a checksum using a complex mathematical algorithm. The operation is sufficiently complex that any change to the original file will produce a different checksum.

By calculating the image’s checksum on your own computer and comparing it to the original checksum, you can verify the image has not been tampered with or corrupted. The original checksum values are provided at https://getfedora.org/security/, and are gpg signed to demonstrate their integrity.

Verifying checksums on Windows systems

  1. Download the Fedora image of your choice from https://fedoraproject.org/get-fedora and the corresponding checksum file from https://getfedora.org/security/

  2. Open a powershell session.

  3. Change to the directory containing the downloaded files.

    > cd $HOME\Downloads\
    > ls
    
    Directory: C:\Users\Pete\Downloads
    
    Mode                LastWriteTime         Length  Name
    ----                -------------         ------  ----
    -a---        11/25/2014  12:39 PM            272  Fedora-Server-21-x86_64-CHECKSUM
    -a---        11/25/2014  12:39 PM     2047868928  Fedora-Server-DVD-x86_64-21.iso
  4. Load the resources required to calculate the checksum.

    > $image = "Fedora-Server-DVD-x86_64-21.iso"
    > $checksum_file = "Fedora-Server-21-x86_64-CHECKSUM"
    > $sha256 = New-Object -TypeName System.Security.Cryptography.sha256CryptoServiceProvider
    > $expected_checksum = ((Get-Content $checksum_file | Select-String -Pattern $image) -split " ")[0].ToLower()
  5. Calculate the downloaded image’s checksum. This will take a while!

    > $download_checksum = [System.BitConverter]::ToString($sha256.ComputeHash([System.IO.File]::ReadAllBytes("$PWD\$image"))).ToLower() -replace '-', ''
  6. Compare the calculated checksum to the expected checksum.

    > echo "Download Checksum: $download_checksum"
    > echo "Expected Checksum: $expected_checksum"
    > if ( $download_checksum -eq "$expected_checksum" ) {
    echo "Checksum test passed!"
    } else {
    echo "Checksum test failed."
    }

Verifying checksums on Linux and OSX systems

  1. Download the Fedora image of your choice from https://fedoraproject.org/get-fedora and the corresponding checksum file from https://getfedora.org/security/

  2. Open a terminal window, and navigate to the directory with the downloaded files.

    $ cd ~/Downloads
  3. Use the appropriate utility to verify the image checksum.

    • For Linux:

      $ sha256sum -c *CHECKSUM
    • For OSX:

      $ grep '^SHA256' *-CHECKSUM | awk -F '[()=]' '{ print $4 " " $2 }' | shasum -a 256 -c

Writing the images to USB media

Creating USB media with GNOME Disks

  1. On a system with GNOME, or with the gnome-disk-utility package installed, open Disks using the system menu.

  2. Click your USB device in the left column.

  3. Click the menu icon in the upper right corner of the window, and choose the Restore Disk Image option.

  4. Navigate to your image file and click Start Restoring. After a few minutes, it will report the process is complete and your installation media will be ready to use.

Creating USB Media on the Linux command line

  1. Open a terminal window and insert the usb drive.

  2. Find the device node assigned to the drive. In the example below, the drive is given sdd.

    $ dmesg|tail
    [288954.686557] usb 2-1.8: New USB device strings: Mfr=0, Product=1, SerialNumber=2
    [288954.686559] usb 2-1.8: Product: USB Storage
    [288954.686562] usb 2-1.8: SerialNumber: 000000009225
    [288954.712590] usb-storage 2-1.8:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected
    [288954.712687] scsi host6: usb-storage 2-1.8:1.0
    [288954.712809] usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
    [288954.716682] usbcore: registered new interface driver uas
    [288955.717140] scsi 6:0:0:0: Direct-Access     Generic  STORAGE DEVICE   9228 PQ: 0 ANSI: 0
    [288955.717745] sd 6:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg4 type 0
    [288961.876382] sd 6:0:0:0: sdd Attached SCSI removable disk
  3. Use the dd utility to write the image.

    # dd if=/path/to/Fedora-Live-Security-x86_64-21.iso of=/dev/sdd

    Pay extreme attention to the source (if=) and target (of=) device. The dd command destroys all data on the target device. If you made a mistake, you could lose important data.

Creating a Boot CD or DVD

In addition to creating a bootable USB flash drive, you can also use the provided ISO images to create bootable optical media (a CD or DVD). This approach may be necessary when installing Fedora on an older system which can not boot from USB.

The exact steps you need to take to burn a bootable CD or DVD from an ISO image will vary depending on what disc burning software you use. This procedure only offers a general overview.

  1. Insert a blank CD or DVD into your system’s CD or DVD burner.

  2. Open your system’s burning software - for example, Brasero on Fedora systems with GNOME desktop environment, or Nero on Windows systems. In the software’s main menu, find an option which lets you burn an ISO image to a disc. For example, in Brasero, this option is Burn image in the main menu on the left side of the window.

  3. When prompted, select the ISO image of Fedora to be burned, and the CD or DVD burner with a blank disc inside (if you have more than one drive).

  4. Confirm your selection, and wait for the disc to be burned.