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Fedora 14

Storage Administration Guide

Deploying and configuring single-node storage in Fedora

Edition 1.0


Edited by

Don Domingo

Engineering Content Services

Subject Matter Experts

Josef Bacik

Disk Quotas 
Server Development Kernel File System

Kamil Dudka

Access Control Lists 
Base Operating System Core Services - BRNO

Hans de Goede

Base Operating System Installer

Doug Ledford

Server Development Hardware Enablement

Daniel Novotny

The /proc File System 
Base Operating System Core Services - BRNO

Nathan Straz

Quality Engineering QE - Platform

David Wysochanski

Server Development Kernel Storage


Michael Christie

Online Storage 
Server Development Kernel Storage

Sachin Prabhu

Software Maintenance Engineering

Rob Evers

Online Storage 
Server Development Kernel Storage

David Howells

Server Development Hardware Enablement

David Lehman

Storage configuration during installation 
Base Operating System Installer

Jeff Moyer

Solid-State Disks 
Server Development Kernel File System

Eric Sandeen

ext3, ext4, XFS, Encrypted File Systems 
Server Development Kernel File System

Mike Snitzer

I/O Stack and Limits 
Server Development Kernel Storage

Legal Notice

Copyright © 2010 Red Hat, Inc. and others.
The text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons Attribution–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license ("CC-BY-SA"). An explanation of CC-BY-SA is available at The original authors of this document, and Red Hat, designate the Fedora Project as the "Attribution Party" for purposes of CC-BY-SA. In accordance with CC-BY-SA, if you distribute this document or an adaptation of it, you must provide the URL for the original version.
Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert, Section 4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.
Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, MetaMatrix, Fedora, the Infinity Logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.
For guidelines on the permitted uses of the Fedora trademarks, refer to
Linux® is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries.
Java® is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.
XFS® is a trademark of Silicon Graphics International Corp. or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries.
MySQL® is a registered trademark of MySQL AB in the United States, the European Union and other countries.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
This guide provides instructions on how to effectively manage storage devices and file systems on Fedora 14 and later. It is intended for use by system administrators with basic to intermediate knowledge of Red Hat Enterprise Linux or Fedora.

1. Document Conventions
1.1. Typographic Conventions
1.2. Pull-quote Conventions
1.3. Notes and Warnings
2. We Need Feedback!
1. Overview
1.1. What's New in Fedora 14
2. Storage Considerations During Installation
2.1. Updates to Storage Configuration During Installation
2.2. Overview of Supported File Systems
2.3. Special Considerations
3. LVM (Logical Volume Manager)
3.1. What is LVM2?
3.2. Using system-config-lvm
3.2.1. Utilizing Uninitialized Entities
3.2.2. Adding Unallocated Volumes to a Volume Group
3.2.3. Migrating Extents
3.2.4. Adding a New Hard Disk Using LVM
3.2.5. Adding a New Volume Group
3.2.6. Extending a Volume Group
3.2.7. Editing a Logical Volume
3.3. References
4. Partitions
4.1. Viewing the Partition Table
4.2. Creating a Partition
4.2.1. Making the Partition
4.2.2. Formatting and Labeling the Partition
4.2.3. Add to /etc/fstab
4.3. Removing a Partition
4.4. Resizing a Partition
5. File System Structure
5.1. Why Share a Common Structure?
5.2. Overview of File System Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
5.2.1. FHS Organization
5.3. Special Fedora File Locations
5.4. The /proc Virtual File System
6. The Ext3 File System
6.1. Creating an Ext3 File System
6.2. Converting to an Ext3 File System
6.3. Reverting to an Ext2 File System
7. The Ext4 File System
7.1. Creating an Ext4 File System
7.2. Converting an Ext3 File System to Ext4
7.3. Mounting an Ext4 File System
7.4. Resizing an Ext4 File System
7.5. Other Ext4 File System Utilities
8. The XFS File System
8.1. Creating an XFS File System
8.2. Mounting an XFS File System
8.3. XFS Quota Management
8.4. Increasing the Size of an XFS File System
8.5. Repairing an XFS File System
8.6. Suspending an XFS File System
8.7. Backup and Restoration of XFS File Systems
8.8. Other XFS File System Utilities
9. Network File System (NFS)
9.1. How It Works
9.1.1. Required Services
9.2. NFS Client Configuration
9.2.1. Mounting NFS File Systems using /etc/fstab
9.3. autofs
9.3.1. Improvements in autofs Version 5 over Version 4
9.3.2. autofs Configuration
9.3.3. Overriding or Augmenting Site Configuration Files
9.3.4. Using LDAP to Store Automounter Maps
9.4. Common NFS Mount Options
9.5. Starting and Stopping NFS
9.6. NFS Server Configuration
9.6.1. The /etc/exports Configuration File
9.6.2. The exportfs Command
9.6.3. Running NFS Behind a Firewall
9.6.4. Hostname Formats
9.7. Securing NFS
9.7.1. Host Access in NFSv2 or NFSv3
9.7.2. Host Access in NFSv4
9.7.3. File Permissions
9.8. NFS and rpcbind
9.8.1. Troubleshooting NFS and rpcbind
9.9. Using NFS over TCP
9.10. References
10. FS-Cache
10.1. Performance Guarantee
10.2. Setting Up a Cache
10.3. Using the Cache With NFS
10.3.1. Cache Sharing
10.3.2. Cache Limitations With NFS
10.4. Setting Cache Cull Limits
10.5. Statistical Information
10.6. References
11. Encrypted File System
11.1. Mounting a File System as Encrypted
11.2. Additional Information
12. Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
12.1. What is RAID?
12.2. Who Should Use RAID?
12.3. RAID Types
12.4. RAID Levels and Linear Support
12.5. Linux RAID Subsystems
12.6. RAID Support in the Installer
12.7. Configuring RAID Sets
12.8. Advanced RAID Device Creation
13. Swap Space
13.1. What is Swap Space?
13.2. Adding Swap Space
13.2.1. Extending Swap on an LVM2 Logical Volume
13.2.2. Creating an LVM2 Logical Volume for Swap
13.2.3. Creating a Swap File
13.3. Removing Swap Space
13.3.1. Reducing Swap on an LVM2 Logical Volume
13.3.2. Removing an LVM2 Logical Volume for Swap
13.3.3. Removing a Swap File
13.4. Moving Swap Space
14. Disk Quotas
14.1. Configuring Disk Quotas
14.1.1. Enabling Quotas
14.1.2. Remounting the File Systems
14.1.3. Creating the Quota Database Files
14.1.4. Assigning Quotas per User
14.1.5. Assigning Quotas per Group
14.1.6. Setting the Grace Period for Soft Limits
14.2. Managing Disk Quotas
14.2.1. Enabling and Disabling
14.2.2. Reporting on Disk Quotas
14.2.3. Keeping Quotas Accurate
14.3. References
15. Access Control Lists
15.1. Mounting File Systems
15.1.1. NFS
15.2. Setting Access ACLs
15.3. Setting Default ACLs
15.4. Retrieving ACLs
15.5. Archiving File Systems With ACLs
15.6. Compatibility with Older Systems
15.7. References
16. Write Barriers
16.1. Importance of Write Barriers
16.2. Enabling/Disabling Write Barriers
16.3. Write Barrier Considerations
17. Storage I/O Alignment and Size
17.1. Parameters for Storage Access
17.2. Userspace Access
17.3. Standards
17.4. Stacking I/O Parameters
17.5. Logical Volume Manager
17.6. Partition and File System Tools
18. Setting Up A Remote Diskless System
18.1. Configuring a tftp Service for Diskless Clients
18.2. Configuring DHCP for Diskless Clients
18.3. Configuring an Exported File System for Diskless Clients
19. Solid-State Disk Deployment Guidelines
19.1. Deployment Considerations
19.2. Tuning Considerations
20. Online Storage Management
20.1. Fibre Channel
20.1.1. Fibre Channel API
20.1.2. Native Fibre Channel Drivers and Capabilities
20.2. iSCSI
20.2.1. iSCSI API
20.3. Persistent Naming
20.3.1. WWID
20.3.2. UUID and Other Persistent Identifiers
20.4. Removing a Storage Device
20.5. Removing a Path to a Storage Device
20.6. Adding a Storage Device or Path
20.7. Configuring a Fibre-Channel Over Ethernet Interface
20.8. Scanning Storage Interconnects
20.9. iSCSI Discovery Configuration
20.10. Configuring iSCSI Offload and Interface Binding
20.10.1. Viewing Available iface Configurations
20.10.2. Configuring an iface for Software iSCSI
20.10.3. Configuring an iface for iSCSI Offload
20.10.4. Binding/Unbinding an iface to a Portal
20.11. Scanning iSCSI Interconnects
20.12. Logging In to an iSCSI Target
20.13. Resizing an Online Logical Unit
20.13.1. Resizing Fibre Channel Logical Units
20.13.2. Resizing an iSCSI Logical Unit
20.13.3. Updating the Size of Your Multipath Device
20.14. Adding/Removing a Logical Unit Through
20.15. Modifying Link Loss Behavior
20.15.1. Fibre Channel
20.15.2. iSCSI Settings With dm-multipath
20.15.3. iSCSI Root
20.16. Controlling the SCSI Command Timer and Device Status
20.17. Troubleshooting
21. Device Mapper Multipathing and Virtual Storage
21.1. Virtual Storage
21.2. DM-Multipath
A. Revision History