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17.6. Partition and File System Tools

This section describes how different partition and file system management tools interact with a device's I/O parameters.

util-linux-ng's libblkid and fdisk

The libblkid library provided with the util-linux-ng package includes a programmatic API to access a device's I/O parameters. libblkid allows applications, especially those that use Direct I/O, to properly size their I/O requests. The fdisk utility from util-linux-ng uses libblkid to determine the I/O parameters of a device for optimal placement of all partitions. The fdisk utility will align all partitions on a 1MB boundary.

parted and libparted

The libparted library from parted also uses the I/O parameters API of libblkid. The Fedora installer (Anaconda) uses libparted, which means that all partitions created by either the installer or parted will be properly aligned. For all partitions created on a device that does not appear to provide I/O parameters, the default alignment will be 1MB.
The heuristics parted uses are as follows:
  • Always use the reported alignment_offset as the offset for the start of the first primary partition.
  • If optimal_io_size is defined (i.e. not 0), align all partitions on an optimal_io_size boundary.
  • If optimal_io_size is undefined (i.e. 0), alignment_offset is 0, and minimum_io_size is a power of 2, use a 1MB default alignment.
    This is the catch-all for "legacy" devices which don't appear to provide I/O hints. As such, by default all partitions will be aligned on a 1MB boundary.


    Fedora cannot distinguish between devices that don't provide I/O hints and those that do so with alignment_offset=0 and optimal_io_size=0. Such a device might be a single SAS 4K device; as such, at worst 1MB of space is lost at the start of the disk.

File System tools

The different mkfs.filesystem utilities have also been enhanced to consume a device's I/O parameters. These utilities will not allow a file system to be formatted to use a block size smaller than the logical_block_size of the underlying storage device.
Except for mkfs.gfs2, all other mkfs.filesystem utilities also use the I/O hints to layout on-disk data structure and data areas relative to the minimum_io_size and optimal_io_size of the underlying storage device. This allows file systems to be optimally formatted for various RAID (striped) layouts.