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2. Examples and Formatting

Each of the examples used in this guide, such as file locations and commands, have certain defined conventions.

2.1. Brackets

Square brackets ([]) are used to indicate an alternative element in a name. For example, if a tool is available in /usr/lib on 32-bit systems and in /usr/lib64 on 64-bit systems, then the tool location may be represented as /usr/lib[64].

2.2. Client Tool Information

The tools for FreeIPA are located in the /usr/bin and the /usr/sbin directories.
The LDAP tools used to edit the FreeIPA directory services, such as ldapmodify and ldapsearch, are from OpenLDAP. OpenLDAP tools use SASL connections by default. To perform a simple bind using a username and password, use the -x argument to disable SASL.

2.3. Text Formatting and Styles

Certain words are represented in different fonts, styles, and weights. Different character formatting is used to indicate the function or purpose of the phrase being highlighted.
Formatting Style Purpose
Monospace with a background
This type of formatting is used for anything entered or returned in a command prompt.
Italicized text Any text which is italicized is a variable, such as instance_name or hostname. Occasionally, this is also used to emphasize a new term or other phrase.
Bolded text Most phrases which are in bold are application names, such as Cygwin, or are fields or options in a user interface, such as a User Name Here: field or Save button. This can also indicate a file, package, or directory name, such as /usr/sbin.
Other formatting styles draw attention to important text.


A note provides additional information that can help illustrate the behavior of the system or provide more detail for a specific issue.


Important information is necessary, but possibly unexpected, such as a configuration change that will not persist after a reboot.


A warning indicates potential data loss, as may happen when tuning hardware for maximum performance.