#### 12.7.4.4. Continue with the Strings

After correctly finishing all of the wind and timpani parts, you can move on to the strings.
• Input all of the pitches and note lengths first, then return to fill in the other markings.
• If you get stuck, then put in some filler notes, and finish the rest of that part. Make a note for yourself, as a comment in the source file, so that you know to return later to finish the part.
• If twenty measures at once is too many, then break it into smaller chunks and input those.
• Here are some tips to help you through this passage. Use the LilyPond help files if you need further assistance.
• Tuplets (Triplets):
• To write any tuplet, use the formula \times x/y { notes in here }, where x is the number of notes actually space to use, and y is the number of notes to let you display.
• For an eighth-note triplet that takes up one beat, you might use this: \times 2/3 { c8 d e }, because in the space of 2 eighth notes you want to fit three instead.
• This is much more powerful than it seems at first. You might want to make it seem as though the measures have stopped being marked, and write something like \times 4/40 { ... }, which will allow you to fit forty of something into the number of beat usually occupied by four of them. This is especially useful with cadenzas, and cadenza-like passages.
• Short-term Polyphonic Input (Divisi):
• Anything between << and >> is interpreted by LilyPond as happening together. If you take a look at the "score" section at the bottom of the file, you will see that all of the parts are listed in that kind of bracket. This ensures that they all happen simultaneously.
• For short-term polyphonic input, use the formula << { upper-voice notes } \\ { lower-voice notes } >>. Remember that the "upper voice" has upward-pointing stems, and the "lower voice" has downward-pointing stems.
• Ties: These can be written by adding ~ to the end of the note beginning the tie: c4~ c8
• Grace Notes: These take up no logical time, and are smaller than ordinary notes. Any notes appearing \grace { in here } would be considered grace notes.
• Crescendo and Diminuendo Markings:
• These are added like other dynamic markings, attached with a backslash to the note where they begin. A crescendo is triggered with \< and a diminuendo with \>.
• The left-most point of the marking (its beginning) is indicated by where you put \< or \>
• The right-most (or end-)point is indicated by either another dynamic marking of any sort, or the special cancellation character \!
• Italic "staccato" Text: \markup { \italic { staccato } }
• Source File Measure Numbers: One of the techniques that can be used when inputting larger scores is writing measure numbers into the source file as comments. I usually write measure numbers every five measures, but it depends on the speed of the music, and what seems like it's useful.