Product SiteDocumentation Site

2. Fedora Products

For more than ten years, the Fedora Project has provided a distribution at the leading edge of the open source ecosystem. Fedora's releases have offered the latest technologies, integrating new and exciting upstream developments into a vast and diverse set of packages.
Users have built powerful desktops, reliable servers, and more recently, versatile cloud instances from the high quality packages in the Fedora repository. Fedora's strong commitment to upstream integrity gives developers a place to showcase their work, and benefit from Fedora's active testing and development volunteers.
In those ten years, much has changed. The Fedora.next initiative represents a considered strategy for maintaining the quality of the distribution and Fedora's position in introducing new technologies, while also providing a more consistent target for developers.
The result of this initiative is three distinct Fedora flagship flavors. Fedora Cloud for scalable infrastructure, Fedora Server for organizational infrastructure, and Fedora Workstation for the developer and desktop user.
Fedora Spins, such as live media featuring alternative desktop environments, will continue to be produced.
Fedora also offers images and support for an ever-increasing number of ARM devices, both large and small.

fedora-release Packages

The named Fedora flavors are identified in part by a set of packages with configuration details and dependencies specific to that flavor. For example, the presence of fedora-release-server identifies a system as Fedora Server, and ensures that core features like Cockpit are present.
Update or installation operations may involve the fedora-release packages, sometimes inadvertently due to the way dependencies are resolved. Environment groups are most susceptible to related conflicts, such as installing extra desktops on Fedora Workstation.
If you encounter package conflicts, add --exclude fedora-release\* to your yum or dnf command. The F21 Common Bugs page describes this in detail.

The netinstall and DVD ISOs

The Fedora netinstall ISO, an installation image that allows you to select and download packages at install time, is now available as the Fedora Server netinstall.
The DVD installation image is not produced for Fedora 21.

2.1. Fedora Cloud

Fedora Cloud is the base building block of the Fedora flavors, ready to be deployed on the fly to meet your changing needs. These small images are backed by the vast set of applications and utilities available in the Fedora package repositories.
Cloud images are available in several varieties:

2.1.1. Cloud Base

Just the basics, this image is ready to be customized for your needs.

2.1.2. Atomic

Cutting edge Project Atomic tools make this image the ideal host for containers. Instead of upgrades to individual packages, Atomic upgrades using rpm-ostree technology allow administrators to upgrade and roll back the entire core system as a single operation.
By combining Docker for versatile container deployments with SELinux to secure them, Fedora Atomic is an ideal solution for secure, modular deployments.

2.1.3. Smaller Cloud images

Fedora maintainers have worked to reduce dependencies and streamline packaging to produce effective Cloud images that are 10% smaller than the previous release. Base qcow2 images are under 200MB, so your Fedora Cloud deployments will use minimal storage resources.
The reduced size is made possible by these notable changes:
  • Fedora packages traditionally include upstream-provided documentation for user or administrator reference, as well as license text. Starting with Fedora 21, Fedora package maintainers have begun using a special location for license files, allowing Cloud images to be built with the license while avoiding the extra space consumed by unneeded documentation.
    Packages which are included in the official Fedora Docker image, and more, now use a special location for license files, /usr/share/licenses/.
  • Kernel packages are smaller due to improved packaging, as described in kernel-packaging

2.1.4. Converting Cloud instances to Fedora Server

Fedora Cloud excels for meeting organizational needs at scale with largely undifferentiated compute resources, but in some cases, an administrator might want to adopt their cattle by converting a cloud instance to an individually managed Fedora Server installation.
To convert Fedora Cloud to Fedora Server, use the script provided in the cloudtoserver package.

2.1.5. Atomic Upgrade and Rollback via RPM-OSTree

Fedora 22 includes RPM-OSTree, a mechanism used on Fedora Atomic installations to perform atomic upgrades and rollbacks for the entire system (kernel as well as userspace).
Instead of performing a package-by-package installation and upgrade on each client machine, the tooling supports composing" sets of packages on a server side. Clients can then perform atomic upgrades as a tree.
On systems using RPM-OSTree, standard package managers (DNF and Yum) do not work normally; they can only be used in read-only mode.

Important

The version of RPM-OSTree available in the default updates repository and on installation media will not work due to a known issue. To use this tool, enable the updates-testing DNF repository and update the rpm-ostree package.
For additional information about this tool and Fedora Atomic, see the Fedora Project Wiki.

2.1.6. Tunir

Tunir is a very simple CI (Continuous Integration) system written keeping Fedora Cloud images at mind. At the same time it is generic enough to be used by anyone to configure and run tests in their local system. The goal is to have a system which is simple to setup, and easy to maintain.

Important

This is a Self Contained Change.
This tool right now can create virtual machines based on cloud images (without needing an actual cloud), or can run the tests in a bare metal box, or it can even create jobs inside Docker containers.
Example:
sudo tunir --job dockerjob --stateless
The above command will run a stateless job named "dockerjob", it will not save the result into any database as it is a stateless run.
For additional information about this tool, see the Tunir Documentation.

2.2. Fedora Server

2.2.1. Fedora Server Roles

A Featured Server role is an installable component of Fedora Server that provides a well-integrated service on top of the Fedora Server platform. These prepared roles simplify deployment and management of a service compared to setting up an upstream server from scratch; their use is recommended but optional; existing users of upstream servers based on Fedora RPMs will not be impeded.
For kickstart installations, you can use the Fedora Server environment group to deploy Server.
2.2.1.1. Framework for Server Role Deployment
A new D-Bus service is available, exposing available server roles, and making it possible to deploy, configure and manage them. Appropriate functionality will also be exposed as a command-line utility.
2.2.1.2. Domain Controller Server Role
Fedora Server can deploy a domain controller powered by FreeIPA. The role greatly simplifies configuration of a primary domain controller.
When combined with SSSD, complex tasks such as single-sign-on and authenticated access to network resources is easily accomplished.

2.2.2. Database Server Role

Rapidly deploy instances of the powerful postgresql database server using the new Database Server Role for rolekit.

2.2.3. Cockpit Management Console

The Cockpit Management Console (the cockpit package) is available by default in Fedora Server. This tool provides a powerful, easy to use, web-based graphical interface for managing multiple Linux servers. Features include:
  • systemd service management
  • Journal log viewer
  • Storage configuration including LVM
  • Docker container management
  • Basic network configuration
  • Adding and removing local users
Any user known to the server can log in to the Cockpit console by opening http://server-ip-address:9090.

2.2.4. XFS as a Default File System

The XFS file system is now used by default when installing Fedora Server. See Section 3.3.1, “XFS as a Default File System for Fedora Server” for details.

2.3. Fedora Workstation

The Fedora Workstation product provides an easy to use, powerful environment for developers to both work and play. Desktop users can enjoy the familiar GNOME Desktop Environment, with support for devices and applications used every day. Developers will appreciate how Workstation is configured for their needs, and provides useful tools like DevAssistant.
For kickstart installations, you can use the Fedora Workstation environment group to deploy Workstation.

2.3.1. GNOME powered

Fedora Workstation developers have provided many enhancements to streamline and improve the GNOME Desktop Environment. Read more about changes to GNOME in Fedora 22 in Section 4.1.2, “GNOME”

2.3.2. Captive Portal Detection

Fedora Workstation, by default, enables a captive portal detection that requests known content from a trusted Fedora server. If the request is redirected, a window automatically appears for you to interact with the portal's login webpage.
To disable this feature, remove /etc/NetworkManager/conf.d/20-connectivity-fedora.conf

2.3.3. Developer oriented firewall

Developers often run test servers that run on high numbered ports, and interconnectivity with many modern consumer devices also requires these ports. The firewall in Fedora Workstation, firewalld, is configured to allow these things.
Ports numbered under 1024, with the exceptions of sshd and clients for samba and DHCPv6, are blocked to prevent access to system services. Ports above 1024, used for user-initiated applications, are open by default.
Refer to https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/FirewallD for details on customizing the firewall configuration, or install the firewall-config package for a graphical tool.

2.3.4. Nautilus Improvements

The Nautilus code base was cleaned up by porting it from the deprecated GtkAction API to GAction. As part of this, the view, gear and app menus are updated to match the current designs. In addition, the problematic floating statusbar and keyboard shortcut for deleting things are solved.

2.4. Fedora Spins

The Fedora Project also produces a number of Spins that provide alternative desktop environments, or package sets crafted for specific use cases. Spins are live images that you can use to preview a variety of software that Fedora has to offer.
Spins available for download from https://spins.fedoraproject.org have included:
  • KDE
    A complete, modern desktop built using the KDE Plasma Desktop.
  • Security
    Security analysis tools.
  • Electronic-Lab
    Fedora's high-end hardware design and simulation platform.
  • Scientific-KDE
    Open Source Scientific Computing.
  • Design-suite
    Open Creativity.
  • Games
    A perfect show-case of the best games available in Fedora.
  • Robotics
    Dive into Robotics.
  • Jam-KDE
    Unleash your inner musician.