Product SiteDocumentation Site

Fedora 7

Installation Guide

 

Edition 2.0

Fedora Documentation Project

Suart Ellis


Legal Notice

Copyright © 2006 Red Hat, Inc. and Others.
The text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons Attribution–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license ("CC-BY-SA"). An explanation of CC-BY-SA is available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/. The original authors of this document, and Red Hat, designate the Fedora Project as the "Attribution Party" for purposes of CC-BY-SA. In accordance with CC-BY-SA, if you distribute this document or an adaptation of it, you must provide the URL for the original version.
Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert, Section 4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.
Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, MetaMatrix, Fedora, the Infinity Logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.
For guidelines on the permitted uses of the Fedora trademarks, refer to https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Legal:Trademark_guidelines.
Linux® is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries.
Java® is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.
XFS® is a trademark of Silicon Graphics International Corp. or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Abstract
 

Preface
1. Document Conventions
1.1. Typographic Conventions
1.2. Pull-quote Conventions
1.3. Notes and Warnings
2. We Need Feedback!
1. Introduction
1.1. Background
1.1.1. About Fedora
1.1.2. Getting Additional Help
1.2. About This Document
1.2.1. Goals
1.2.2. Audience
1.3. Feedback
2. Quick Start for Experts
2.1. Overview
2.2. Download Files
2.3. Prepare for Installation
2.4. Install Fedora
2.5. Perform Post-installation Steps
3. New Users
3.1. How Do I Download Installation Files?
3.1.1. From a Mirror
3.1.2. From BitTorrent
3.2. Which Architecture Is My Computer?
3.3. Which Files Do I Download?
3.4. How Do I Make Fedora Media?
3.5. What If I Cannot Download Fedora?
3.6. How Do I Start the Installation Program?
4. Beginning the Installation
4.1. The Boot Menu
4.2. Installing from a Different Source
4.3. Verifying Media
4.3.1. Verifying the Live CD
4.3.2. Verifying the DVD
4.4. Booting from the Network using PXE
4.5. Graphical and Text Interfaces
5. Identifying Your Locale
5.1. Language Selection
5.2. Keyboard Configuration
6. Installation Methods
6.1. Alternative Installation Methods
6.2. Installation from a Hard Drive
6.3. Installation TCP/IP Configuration
6.4. NFS Installation Setup
6.5. FTP Installation Setup
6.5.1. Non-Anonymous FTP Setup
6.6. HTTP Installation Setup
7. Welcome Dialog
7.1. Initializing the Hard Disk
7.2. RAID or Other Nonstandard Configurations
8. Upgrading an Existing System
8.1. Upgrade Examine
8.2. Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration
9. Disk Partitioning
9.1. RAID and Other Disk Devices
9.1.1. Hardware RAID
9.1.2. Software RAID
9.1.3. FireWire and USB Disks
9.2. General Information on Partitions
9.2.1. Partition Types
9.2.2. Minimum Partition Sizes
9.3. Understanding LVM
9.4. Advice on Partitions
9.5. Disk Druid
10. Boot Loader
10.1. Keeping Your Existing Boot Loader Settings
10.2. Booting Additional Operating Systems
10.3. Setting a Boot Loader Password
10.3.1. Forgotten GRUB Passwords
10.4. Advanced Boot Loader Options
11. Network Configuration
11.1. Network Devices
11.1.1. Configuring IPv4 and IPv6 Support
11.1.2. Configuring IPv4
11.1.3. Configuring IPv6
11.2. Hostname
11.3. Miscellaneous Settings
12. Time Zone Selection
12.1. Selecting a Time Zone
12.2. Universal Co-ordinated Time (UTC)
13. Set the Root Password
14. Software Selection
14.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
14.2. Customizing the Software Selection
14.2.1. Changing Your Mind
14.2.2. Additional Language Support
14.2.3. Core Network Services
15. About to Install
16. Installing Packages
17. First Boot
17.1. License Agreement
17.2. Firewall
17.3. SELinux
17.4. Date and Time
17.5. System User
17.6. Sound Card
18. Your Next Steps
18.1. Updating Your System
18.2. Subscribing to Fedora Announcements and News
18.3. Finding Documentation and Support
18.4. Joining the Fedora Community
A. Boot Options
A.1. Configuring the Installation System at the Boot Menu
A.1.1. Specifying the Language
A.1.2. Configuring the Interface
A.1.3. Specifying the Installation Method
A.1.4. Manually Configuring the Network Settings
A.2. Enabling Remote Access to the Installation System
A.2.1. Enabling Remote Access with VNC
A.2.2. Connecting the Installation System to a VNC Listener
A.2.3. Enabling Remote Access with Telnet
A.3. Logging to a Remote System During the Installation
A.3.1. Configuring a Log Server
A.4. Automating the Installation with Kickstart
A.5. Enhancing Hardware Support
A.5.1. Adding Hardware Support with Driver Disks
A.5.2. Overriding Automatic Hardware Detection
A.6. Using the Maintenance Boot Modes
A.6.1. Loading the Memory (RAM) Testing Mode
A.6.2. Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode
B. Setting Up a PXE Server
C. Other Technical Documentation
Index

Preface

1. Document Conventions

This manual uses several conventions to highlight certain words and phrases and draw attention to specific pieces of information.
In PDF and paper editions, this manual uses typefaces drawn from the Liberation Fonts set. The Liberation Fonts set is also used in HTML editions if the set is installed on your system. If not, alternative but equivalent typefaces are displayed. Note: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and later includes the Liberation Fonts set by default.

1.1. Typographic Conventions

Four typographic conventions are used to call attention to specific words and phrases. These conventions, and the circumstances they apply to, are as follows.
Mono-spaced Bold
Used to highlight system input, including shell commands, file names and paths. Also used to highlight keycaps and key combinations. For example:
To see the contents of the file my_next_bestselling_novel in your current working directory, enter the cat my_next_bestselling_novel command at the shell prompt and press Enter to execute the command.
The above includes a file name, a shell command and a keycap, all presented in mono-spaced bold and all distinguishable thanks to context.
Key combinations can be distinguished from keycaps by the hyphen connecting each part of a key combination. For example:
Press Enter to execute the command.
Press Ctrl+Alt+F1 to switch to the first virtual terminal. Press Ctrl+Alt+F7 to return to your X-Windows session.
The first paragraph highlights the particular keycap to press. The second highlights two key combinations (each a set of three keycaps with each set pressed simultaneously).
If source code is discussed, class names, methods, functions, variable names and returned values mentioned within a paragraph will be presented as above, in mono-spaced bold. For example:
File-related classes include filesystem for file systems, file for files, and dir for directories. Each class has its own associated set of permissions.
Proportional Bold
This denotes words or phrases encountered on a system, including application names; dialog box text; labeled buttons; check-box and radio button labels; menu titles and sub-menu titles. For example:
Choose SystemPreferencesMouse from the main menu bar to launch Mouse Preferences. In the Buttons tab, click the Left-handed mouse check box and click Close to switch the primary mouse button from the left to the right (making the mouse suitable for use in the left hand).
To insert a special character into a gedit file, choose ApplicationsAccessoriesCharacter Map from the main menu bar. Next, choose SearchFind… from the Character Map menu bar, type the name of the character in the Search field and click Next. The character you sought will be highlighted in the Character Table. Double-click this highlighted character to place it in the Text to copy field and then click the Copy button. Now switch back to your document and choose EditPaste from the gedit menu bar.
The above text includes application names; system-wide menu names and items; application-specific menu names; and buttons and text found within a GUI interface, all presented in proportional bold and all distinguishable by context.
Mono-spaced Bold Italic or Proportional Bold Italic
Whether mono-spaced bold or proportional bold, the addition of italics indicates replaceable or variable text. Italics denotes text you do not input literally or displayed text that changes depending on circumstance. For example:
To connect to a remote machine using ssh, type ssh username@domain.name at a shell prompt. If the remote machine is example.com and your username on that machine is john, type ssh john@example.com.
The mount -o remount file-system command remounts the named file system. For example, to remount the /home file system, the command is mount -o remount /home.
To see the version of a currently installed package, use the rpm -q package command. It will return a result as follows: package-version-release.
Note the words in bold italics above — username, domain.name, file-system, package, version and release. Each word is a placeholder, either for text you enter when issuing a command or for text displayed by the system.
Aside from standard usage for presenting the title of a work, italics denotes the first use of a new and important term. For example:
Publican is a DocBook publishing system.

1.2. Pull-quote Conventions

Terminal output and source code listings are set off visually from the surrounding text.
Output sent to a terminal is set in mono-spaced roman and presented thus:
books        Desktop   documentation  drafts  mss    photos   stuff  svn
books_tests  Desktop1  downloads      images  notes  scripts  svgs

Source-code listings are also set in mono-spaced roman but add syntax highlighting as follows:
package org.jboss.book.jca.ex1;

import javax.naming.InitialContext;

public class ExClient
{
   public static void main(String args[]) 
       throws Exception
   {
      InitialContext iniCtx = new InitialContext();
      Object         ref    = iniCtx.lookup("EchoBean");
      EchoHome       home   = (EchoHome) ref;
      Echo           echo   = home.create();

      System.out.println("Created Echo");

      System.out.println("Echo.echo('Hello') = " + echo.echo("Hello"));
   }
}

1.3. Notes and Warnings

Finally, we use three visual styles to draw attention to information that might otherwise be overlooked.

Note

Notes are tips, shortcuts or alternative approaches to the task at hand. Ignoring a note should have no negative consequences, but you might miss out on a trick that makes your life easier.

Important

Important boxes detail things that are easily missed: configuration changes that only apply to the current session, or services that need restarting before an update will apply. Ignoring a box labeled 'Important' won't cause data loss but may cause irritation and frustration.

Warning

Warnings should not be ignored. Ignoring warnings will most likely cause data loss.

2. We Need Feedback!

If you find a typographical error in this manual, or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better, we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report in Bugzilla: http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/ against the product Fedora Documentation.
When submitting a bug report, be sure to mention the manual's identifier: install-guide
If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible when describing it. If you have found an error, please include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it easily.

Chapter 1. Introduction

This guide covers installation of Fedora, a Linux distribution built on free and open source software. This manual helps you install Fedora on desktops, laptops, and servers. The installation system is flexible enough to use even if you have no previous knowledge of Linux or computer networks. If you select default options, Fedora provides a complete desktop operating system, including productivity applications, Internet utilities, and desktop tools.
This document does not detail all of the features of the installation system.

1.1. Background

1.1.1. About Fedora

To find out more about Fedora, refer to http://fedoraproject.org/. To read other documentation on Fedora related topics, refer to http://docs.fedoraproject.org/.

1.1.2. Getting Additional Help

For information on additional help resources for Fedora, visit http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Communicate.

1.2. About This Document

1.2.1. Goals

This guide helps a reader:
  1. Understand how to locate the Fedora distribution online
  2. Create configuration data that allows a computer to boot Fedora
  3. Understand and interact with the Fedora installation program
  4. Complete basic post-installation configuration of a Fedora system

Other Sources of Documentation

This guide does not cover use of Fedora. To learn how to use an installed Fedora system, refer to http://docs.fedoraproject.org/ for other documentation.

1.2.2. Audience

This guide is intended for new and intermediate Fedora users. Advanced Fedora users with questions about detailed operation of expert installation features should consult the Anaconda development mailing list at http://www.redhat.com/archives/anaconda-devel-list/.

1.3. Feedback

The Fedora Documentation Project (FDP) is a group of volunteer writers, editors, translators, and other contributors who create content for free and open source software. The FDP maintains this document and is always interested in reader feedback.
To send feedback regarding this document, send email to docs@fedoraproject.org, or visit https://bugzilla.redhat.com/ to file a bug in Bugzilla. To file a bug, fill in "install-guide" as the Product, choose the name of this document from the Component list, and choose "devel" as the version. FDP volunteers receive your feedback, and may contact you for additional information, if necessary.

Chapter 2. Quick Start for Experts

This section offers a very brief overview of installation tasks for experienced readers who are eager to get started. Note that many explanatory notes and helpful hints appear in the following chapters of this guide. If an issue arises during the installation process, consult the appropriate chapters in the full guide for help.

Experts Only

This section is intended only for experts. Other readers may not be familiar with some of the terms in this section, and should move on to Chapter 3, New Users instead.

2.1. Overview

The installation procedure is fairly simple, and consists of only a few steps:
  1. Download files to make media or another bootable configuration.
  2. Prepare system for installation.
  3. Boot the computer and run the installation process.
  4. Reboot and perform post-installation configuration.

2.2. Download Files

Do any one of the following:
  1. Download the ISO image for the Live CD. Create CD media from the ISO file using your preferred application. To install the distribution to your hard disk, use the shortcut on the desktop after you log in.
  2. Download the ISO images for the full distribution on CD or DVD. Create CD or DVD media from the ISO files using your preferred application, or put the images on a Windows FAT32 or Linux ext2/ext3 partition.
  3. Download the boot.iso image for a minimal boot CD or bootdisk.img file for a minimal boot USB flash drive. Write the image to the approriate physical media to create bootable media.
  4. Download the rescuecd.iso image for a reduced-size boot CD. Write the image to the appropriate physical media to create bootable media.
  5. Download the vmlinuz kernel file and the initrd.img ramdisk image from the distribution's isolinux/ directory. Configure your operating system to boot the kernel and load the ramdisk image.

2.3. Prepare for Installation

Back up any user data you need to preserve, and if necessary, resize existing partitions to make room for Fedora. To resize your NTFS partition from the Fedora installer, use the ntfsresize and fdisk commands.
Use Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to a virtual terminal from the installation program if you are not using a Live CD. Perform any resize operations before proceeding to the installer's partitioning options.

2.4. Install Fedora

Boot from the desired media, with any options appropriate for your hardware and installation mode. Refer to Appendix A, Boot Options for more information about boot options. If you boot from the Live CD, select the "Install to Hard Disk" option from the menu to run the installation program. If you boot from minimal media or a downloaded kernel, select a network or hard disk resource from which to install.
Proceed through all the steps of the installation program. The installation program does not change your system until you make a final confirmation to proceed. When installation is finished, reboot your system.

2.5. Perform Post-installation Steps

After the system reboots, it displays additional configuration options. Make appropriate changes to your system and proceed to the login prompt.

Chapter 3. New Users

This chapter explains how to get the files you need to install and run Fedora on your computer. Some of the concepts in this chapter may be new, since you may never have downloaded a complete free operating system.

Additional Help

If you have trouble with this chapter, you may be able to find help by visiting the Fedora Forums at http://www.fedoraforum.org/

3.1. How Do I Download Installation Files?

The Fedora Project distributes Fedora in many ways, most of which are free of cost and downloadable over the Internet. The most common distribution method is CD and DVD media. There are several types of CD and DVD media available, including:
  • A full set of the installable software on DVD media
  • A Live image that you can use to try Fedora, and install it to your system if you like it
  • Minimal boot CD and USB flash disk images that allows you to install over an Internet connection
  • A reduced-size rescue CD image that allows you to install over an Internet connection, and fix problems with malfunctioning Fedora systems
  • Source code on DVD media
Most users want either the Live image or the full set of installable software on DVD. The minimal boot CD image is suitable for users who have a fast Internet connection and only want to install Fedora on one computer. Source code discs are not used for installing Fedora, but are useful to experienced users and software developers.

Downloading media

Users with a broadband Internet connection can download ISO images of CD and DVD media or images of USB flash disks. An ISO image is a copy of an entire disc in a format suitable for writing directly to a CD or DVD. A USB flash disk image is a copy of an entire disk in a format suitable for writing directly to a USB flash disk.
For more information on burning CDs and DVDs, refer to Section 3.4, “How Do I Make Fedora Media?”.
Fedora software is available for download at no cost in a variety of ways.

3.1.1. From a Mirror

To find the freely downloadable distributions of Fedora, look for a mirror. A mirror is a computer server that is open to the public for free downloads of software, including Fedora and often other free and open source software. To locate a mirror, visit http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Mirrors using a Web browser, and choose a server from the list. The web page lists mirrors by geographic location. You may want to choose a mirror that is geographically close to you for faster speed.
Mirrors publish Fedora software under a well-organized hierarchy of folders. For example, the Fedora 8 distribution normally appears in the directory fedora/linux/releases/8/. This directory contains a folder for each architecture supported by that release of Fedora. CD and DVD media files appear inside that folder, in a folder called iso/. For example, you can find the file for the DVD distribution of Fedora 8 for x86_64 at fedora/linux/releases/8/x86_64/iso/F-8-x86_64-DVD.iso.

3.1.2. From BitTorrent

BitTorrent is a way to download information in cooperation with other computers. Each computer cooperating in the group downloads pieces of the information in a particular torrent from other peers in the group. Computers that have finished downloading all the data in a torrent remain in the swarm to seed, or provide data to other peers. If you download using BitTorrent, as a courtesy you should seed the torrent at least until you have uploaded at least the same amount of data you downloaded.
If your computer does not have software installed for BitTorrent, visit the BitTorrent home page at http://www.bittorrent.com/download/ to download it. BitTorrent client software is available for Windows, Mac OS, Linux, and many other operating systems.
You do not need to find a special mirror for BitTorrent files. The BitTorrent protocol ensures that your computer participates in a nearby group. To download and use the Fedora BitTorrent files, visit http://torrent.fedoraproject.org/.

Minimal Boot Images

Minimal boot CD and USB flash disk images are not available through BitTorrent.

3.2. Which Architecture Is My Computer?

Releases are separated by architecture, or type of computer processor. Use the following table to determine the architecture of your computer according to the type of processor. Consult your manufacturer's documentation for details on the processor if necessary.
Processor and Architecture Types
Processor Manufacturer and ModelArchitecture Type for Fedora
Intel (except Core 2 Duo, Centrino Core 2 Duo, or Xeon), AMD (except 64 or x2 dual-core), VIA C4, Apple MacBook Proi386
Intel Core 2 Duo, Centrino Core 2 Duo, and Xeon; AMD Athlon64/x2, Sempron64/x2, Duron64x86_64
Apple Macintosh G3, G4, G5, PowerBook, and other non-Intel modelsppc

i386 Works for Most Windows Compatible Computers

If you are unsure what type of processor your computer has, and you are not using an Apple Macintosh, choose i386.

3.3. Which Files Do I Download?

You have several options to download Fedora. Read the options below to decide which is best for you.
The architecture type appears in the name of the downloadable files for each Fedora distribution. For example, the file for the DVD distribution of Fedora 8 for x86_64 is named F-8-x86_64-DVD.iso. Refer to Section 3.2, “Which Architecture Is My Computer?” if you are unsure of your computer's architecture.
  1. Full Distribution on DVD
    If you have plenty of time and a fast Internet connection, and want to be able to install a broader choice of software, download the full DVD version. Both types of media are bootable, and include an installation program as well as a mode to perform rescue operations on your Fedora system in an emergency. You can download the DVD version directly from a mirror, or via BitTorrent.
  2. Live Image
    If you want to try Fedora before you install it on your computer, download the Live image version. If your computer supports booting from CD, you can boot the operating system without making any changes to your hard disk. The Live image also provides an "Install to Hard Disk" menu option. If you decide you like what you see, and want to install it, simply activate the selection to copy Fedora to your hard disk. You can download the Live image directly from a mirror, or using BitTorrent.

    No Live Images for ppc

    Fedora does not offer Live images available for the ppc architecture due to resource constraints.
  3. Minimal Boot Media
    If you have a fast Internet connection but do not want to download the entire distribution, you can download a small boot image. Fedora offers images for a minimal boot environment on CD or USB flash disk, and a reduced size rescue CD image. Once you boot your system with the minimal media, you can install Fedora directly over the Internet. Although this method still involves downloading a significant amount of data over the Internet, it is almost always much less than the size of the full distribution media. Once you have finished installation, you can add or remove software to your system as desired.

    Download Size

    Installing the default software for Fedora over the Internet requires more time than the Live image, but less time than the entire DVD distribution. Actual results depend on the actual software you select and network traffic conditions.
The following table explains where to find the desired files on a mirror site.
Locating Files
Media TypeFile Locations
Full distribution on DVDfedora/linux/releases/8/Live/arch/iso/F-8-arch-DVD.iso
Live imagefedora/linux/releases/8/Live/arch/iso/F-8-arch-Live.iso, fedora/linux/releases/8/Live/arch/iso/F-8-KDE-arch-Live.iso
Minimal CD boot mediafedora/linux/releases/8/Fedora/arch/os/images/boot.iso
Minimal USB boot mediafedora/linux/releases/8/Fedora/arch/os/images/diskboot.img
Rescue CD boot mediafedora/linux/releases/8/Fedora/arch/iso/F-8-arch-rescuecd.iso

3.4. How Do I Make Fedora Media?

To make media, choose one of the following options:
  • Making CD and DVD Media
    To learn how to turn ISO images into CD or DVD media, refer to http://docs.fedoraproject.org/readme-burning-isos/.
  • Making Minimal USB Boot Media
    The minimal USB disk image, diskboot.img, requires a blank USB flash drive. Writing the minimal USB boot image to a USB flash drive will destroy all the data on the drive.
    On a Linux system, as root, use the following command to write the image to the drive:
    dd if=diskboot.img of=/dev/sdX
    

    Write to the Correct Device

    Make sure you are writing to the proper disk. Consult the /var/log/messages log or use the dmesg command. If your system supports dynamic device creation, run the command ls -l /dev/disk/by-id/ to locate the device.
    A comparable dd program for Windows systems is available at http://users.erols.com/gmgarner/forensics/. The website gives examples of how to use this Windows program to copy an image to a physical disk device.

    Caveat Emptor

    This website is not part of the Fedora Project, and the Fedora Project is not responsible for its content.

3.5. What If I Cannot Download Fedora?

If you do not have a fast Internet connection, or if you have a problem creating boot media, downloading may not be an option. Fedora DVD and CD distribution media is available from a number of online sources around the world at a minimal cost. Use your favorite Web search engine to locate a vendor, or refer to http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Distribution.

3.6. How Do I Start the Installation Program?

To start the installation program from minimal boot media, the rescue CD, or the distribution DVD, follow this procedure:
  1. Power off your computer system.
  2. Disconnect any external FireWire or USB disks that you do not need for installation. Refer to Section 9.1.3, “FireWire and USB Disks” for more information.
  3. Insert the media in your computer and turn it on.
You may need to hit a specific key or combination of keys to boot from the media, or configure your system's Basic Input/Output System, or BIOS, to boot from the media. On most computers you must select the boot or BIOS option promptly after turning on the computer. Most Windows-compatible computer systems use a special key such as F1, F2, F12, or Del to start the BIOS configuration menu. On Apple computers, the C key boots the system from the DVD drive.

Configuring the BIOS

If you are not sure what capabilities your computer has, or how to configure the BIOS, consult the documentation provided by the manufacturer. Detailed information on hardware specifications and configuration is beyond the scope of this document.

Chapter 4. Beginning the Installation

Aborting the Installation

To abort the installation process at any time before the Installing Packages screen, either press Ctrl+Alt+Del or power off the computer with the power switch. Fedora makes no changes to your computer until package installation begins.

4.1. The Boot Menu

The boot media displays a graphical boot menu with several options. If no key is hit within 60 seconds, the default boot option runs. To choose the default, either wait for the timer to run out or hit Enter on the keyboard. To select a different option than the default, use the arrow keys on your keyboard, and hit Enter when the correct option is highlighted. If you want to customize the boot options for a particular option, hit the Tab key.

Using Boot Options

For a listing and explanation of common boot options, refer to Appendix A, Boot Options.
If you boot the Live CD, the options include:
  • Run from image
    This option is the default. If you select this option, only the kernel and startup programs load into memory. This option takes less time to load. As you use programs, they are loaded from the disc, which takes more time. This mode can be used on machines with less total memory.
  • Run from RAM
    If you select this option, the Live CD environment loads entirely into memory. This option takes longer to load, since the entire CD is loaded at one time. As you use programs later, they are loaded directly from memory, which results in a more responsive environment. This mode can only be used on machines with at least 1 GB of RAM.
  • Verify and run from image
    This option lets you verify the disc before you run the Live CD environment. Refer to Section 4.3, “Verifying Media” for more information on the verification process.
If you boot the DVD, rescue CD, or minimal boot media, the boot menu options include:
  • Install or upgrade an existing system
    This option is the default. Choose this option to install Fedora onto your computer system using the graphical installation program.
  • Install or upgrade an existing system (text mode)
    Choose this option to install Fedora onto your computer system using the text-based installation program. If your computer system has problems using the graphical installation program, you can install the system with this option. Installing with this option does not prevent you from using a graphical interface on the system once it is installed.
  • Rescue installed system
    Choose this option to repair a problem with your installed Fedora system that prevents you from booting normally. Although Fedora is an exceptionally stable computing platform, it is still possible for occasional problems to occur that prevent booting. The rescue environment contains utility programs that allow you fix a wide variety of these problems.
  • Boot from local drive
    After you boot from the Fedora media, if you decide you need to boot your system from its existing hard disk, choose this option.

4.2. Installing from a Different Source

All boot media except the distribution DVD present a menu that allows you to choose the installation source, such as the network or a hard disk. If you are booting the distribution DVD and do not want to install from the DVD, hit Tab at the boot menu. Add a space and the option askmethod to the end of the line that appears below the menu.
You can install Fedora from the ISO images stored on hard disk, or from a network using NFS, FTP, or HTTP methods. Experienced users frequently use one of these methods because it is often faster to read data from a hard disk or network server than from a CD or DVD.
The following table summarizes the different boot methods and recommended installation methods to use with each:
Boot MethodInstallation Method
DVDDVD, network, or hard disk
Minimal boot CD or USB, rescue CDNetwork or hard disk
Live CD or USBInstall to Hard Disk application
Chapter 6, Installation Methods contains detailed information about installing from alternate locations.

4.3. Verifying Media

The distribution DVD media and the Live CD media offer an option to verify the integrity of the media. Recording errors sometimes occur while producing CD or DVD media in home computer equipment. An error in the data for package chosen in the installation program can cause the installation to abort. To minimize the chances of data errors affecting the installation, verify the media before installing.

4.3.1. Verifying the Live CD

If you boot from the Live CD, choose Verify and run from image from the boot menu. The verification process runs automatically during the boot process, and if it succeeds, the Live CD continues loading. If the verification fails, create a new Live CD using the ISO image you downloaded earlier.

4.3.2. Verifying the DVD

If you boot from the Fedora distribution DVD, the option to verify the media appears after you choose to install Fedora. If the verification succeeds, the installation process proceeds normally. If the process fails, create a new DVD using the ISO image you downloaded earlier.

4.4. Booting from the Network using PXE

To boot with PXE, you need a properly configured server, and a network interface in your computer that supports PXE. For information on how to configure a PXE server, refer to Appendix B, Setting Up a PXE Server.
Configure the computer to boot from the network interface. This option is in the BIOS, and may be labeled Network Boot or Boot Services. Once you properly configure PXE booting, the computer can boot the Fedora installation system without any other media.
To boot a computer from a PXE server:
  1. Ensure that the network cable is attached. The link indicator light on the network socket should be lit, even if the computer is not switched on.
  2. Switch on the computer.
  3. A menu screen appears. Press the number key that corresponds to the desired option.

PXE Troubleshooting

If your PC does not boot from the netboot server, ensure that the BIOS is configured to boot first from the correct network interface. Some BIOS systems specify the network interface as a possible boot device, but do not support the PXE standard. Refer to your hardware documentation for more information.

4.5. Graphical and Text Interfaces

If one of the following situations occurs, the installation program uses a text mode:
  • The installation system fails to identify the display hardware on your computer
  • Your computer has less than 192 MB of RAM
  • You choose the text mode installation from the boot menu
The text screens provide the same functions as the standard screens. You can configure your system for graphical interface use after installation.

Graphical Interface Usage

Installing in text mode does not prevent you from using a graphical interface on your system once it is installed. If you have trouble configuring your system for graphical interface use, consult other sources for troubleshooting help as shown in Section 1.1.2, “Getting Additional Help”.

Chapter 5. Identifying Your Locale

5.1. Language Selection

The installation program displays a list of languages supported by Fedora. Highlight the correct language on the list and select Next.

Installing Support For Additional Languages

To select support for additional languages, customize the installation at the package selection stage. For more information, refer to Section 14.2.2, “Additional Language Support”.

5.2. Keyboard Configuration

The installation program display a list of the keyboard layouts supported by Fedora. Highlight the correct layout on the list, and select Next.

Chapter 6. Installation Methods

6.1. Alternative Installation Methods

CD/DVD Activity

If you booted with the Fedora distribution DVD, the installation program loads its next stage from that disc. This happens regardless of which installation method you choose, unless you eject the disc before you proceed. The installation program still downloads package data from the source you choose.
Even if you booted from alternative media, you can still install Fedora from CD or DVD media. Alternately, you can install from ISO images stored on your computer's hard disk, or from a network server.

6.2. Installation from a Hard Drive

Once you have booted your computer, you may use ISO image files of the Fedora discs to continue the installation process. The ISO files must be located on a hard drive that is either internal to the computer, or attached to the machine by USB. You can use this option to install Fedora on computers that have neither a network connection nor CD or DVD drives.
The partition on the hard drive holding the ISO files must be formatted with the ext2, ext3 or vfat file system. In Fedora, vfat includes a range of file systems, such as FAT-16 and FAT-32, found on most removable media. External hard drives usually contain vfat (FAT-32) file systems. Some Microsoft Windows systems also use vfat file systems on internal hard disk partitions.
Before you begin installation from a hard drive, check the partition type to ensure that Fedora can read it. To check a partition's file system under Windows, use the Disk Management tool. To check a partition's file system under Linux, use the fdisk utility.

Cannot Install from LVM Partitions

You cannot use ISO files on partitions controlled by LVM (Logical Volume Management).
Select the partition containing the ISO files from the list of available partitions. Internal IDE, SATA, SCSI, and USB drive device names begin with /dev/sd. Each individual drive has its own letter, for example /dev/sda. Each partition on a drive is numbered, for example /dev/sda1.
Also specify the Directory holding images. Enter the full directory path from the drive that contains the ISO image files. The following table shows some examples of how to enter this information:
Partition type Volume Original path to files Directory to use
VFAT,NTFS D:\ D:\Downloads\F7 /Downloads/F7
ext2, ext3, ext4 /home /home/user1/F7 /user1/F7
Table 6.1. Location of ISO images for different partition types

Select OK to continue. Proceed with Chapter 7, Welcome Dialog.

6.3. Installation TCP/IP Configuration

The installation program is network-aware and can use network settings for a number of functions. For instance, you can install Fedora from a network server using FTP, HTTP, or NFS protocols. You can also instruct the installation program to consult additional software repositories later in the process.
By default, the installation program uses DHCP to automatically provide network settings. If you use a cable or DSL modem, router, firewall, or other network hardware to communicate with the Internet, DHCP is a suitable option. In a business environment, consult with your network administrators for appropriate settings. If your network has no DHCP server, clear the check box labeled Use dynamic IP configuration (DHCP).
The installation program supports both IPv4 and IPv6 protocols. If you are not sure which addressing scheme your network uses, it is safe to leave both options selected. Refer also to Chapter 11, Network Configuration for more information on configuring your network.

DHCP Responses Take Time

If you select options for a protocol not used on your network, or vice versa, it may take additional time to receive network settings from the DHCP server.
These settings apply only during the installation process. The installation program allows you to configure the final network configuration later.
You can install from a Web, FTP, or NFS server either on your local network or, if you are connected, on the Internet. You may install Fedora from your own private mirror, or use one of the public mirrors maintained by members of the community. To ensure that the connection is as fast and reliable as possible, use a server that is close to your own geographical location.
The Fedora Project maintains a list of HTTP and FTP public mirrors, sorted by region, at http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Mirrors. To determine the complete directory path for the installation files, add /8/Fedora/architecture/os/ to the path shown on the web page. A correct mirror location for an i386 system resembles the URL http://mirror.example.com/pub/fedora/linux/releases/8/Fedora/i386/os.

6.4. NFS Installation Setup

To install from a NFS server, select NFS from the Installation Method menu and select OK. Enter the name or IP address of the NFS server and the directory where the installation files reside.

NFS Mirror Availability

Public NFS mirrors are rare due to security concerns with NFS that do not necessarily apply to FTP or HTTP servers. The Fedora Project does not maintain a list of public NFS mirrors for Fedora.
Select OK to continue. Proceed with Chapter 7, Welcome Dialog.

6.5. FTP Installation Setup

To install from a FTP server, select FTP from the Installation Method menu and select OK. Enter the name or IP address of the FTP server and the directory where the installation files reside.
Select OK to continue. If you are using the default, anonymous FTP service, continue with Chapter 7, Welcome Dialog.

6.5.1. Non-Anonymous FTP Setup

The FTP service setup dialog also has a Use non-anonymous ftp option. If your FTP server does not provide anonymous access, select this check box. You must have an account on the FTP server to use this option.
Enter your username and password in the spaces provided. Then select OK to continue. Proceed with Chapter 7, Welcome Dialog.

6.6. HTTP Installation Setup

To install from a Web (HTTP) server, select HTTP from the Installation Method menu and select OK.
Enter the name or IP address of the Web server and the directory where the installation files reside. Select OK to continue. Proceed with Chapter 7, Welcome Dialog.

Chapter 7. Welcome Dialog

After the installation program loads its next stage, a welcome dialog appears. Select Next to continue.

7.1. Initializing the Hard Disk

If no readable partition tables are found on existing hard disks, the installation program asks to initialize the hard disk. This operation makes any existing data on the hard disk unreadable. If your system has a brand new hard disk with no operating system installed, or you have removed all partitions on the hard disk, answer Yes.

7.2. RAID or Other Nonstandard Configurations

Certain RAID systems or other nonstandard configurations may be unreadable to the installation program and the aforementioned prompt may appear. The installation program responds to the physical disk structures it is able to detect.

Detach Unneeded Disks

If you have a nonstandard disk configuration that can be detached during installation and detected and configured afterward, power off the system, detach it, and restart the installation.

Chapter 8. Upgrading an Existing System

The installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Fedora. The upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but does not remove any data from users' home directories. The existing partition structure on your hard drives does not change. Your system configuration changes only if a package upgrade demands it. Most package upgrades do not change system configuration, but rather install an additional configuration file for you to examine later.

8.1. Upgrade Examine

If your system contains a Fedora or Red Hat Linux installation, a dialog appears asking whether you want to upgrade that installation. To perform an upgrade of an existing system, choose the appropriate installation from the drop-down list and select Next.

Manually Installed Software

Software which you have installed manually on your existing Fedora or Red Hat Linux system may behave differently after an upgrade. You may need to manually recompile this software after an upgrade to ensure it performs correctly on the updated system.

8.2. Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration

Your completed Fedora installation must be registered in the boot loader to boot properly. A boot loader is software on your machine that locates and starts the operating system. Refer to Chapter 10, Boot Loader for more information about boot loaders.
If the existing boot loader was installed by a Linux distribution, the installation system can modify it to load the new Fedora system. To update the existing Linux boot loader, select Update boot loader configuration. This is the default behavior when you upgrade an existing Fedora or Red Hat Linux installation.
GRUB is the standard boot loader for Fedora. If your machine uses another boot loader, such as BootMagic™, System Commander™, or the loader installed by Microsoft Windows, then the Fedora installation system cannot update it. In this case, select Skip boot loader updating. When the installation process completes, refer to the documentation for your product for assistance.
Install a new boot loader as part of an upgrade process only if you are certain you want to replace the existing boot loader. If you install a new boot loader, you may not be able to boot other operating systems on the same machine until you have configured the new boot loader. Select Create new boot loader configuration to remove the existing boot loader and install GRUB.
After you make your selection, click Next to continue.

Chapter 9. Disk Partitioning

Fedora creates and uses several partitions on the available hard drives. You may customize both the partitions, and how the drives on your system are managed. Section 9.2, “General Information on Partitions” explains drive partitions in more detail.

Changing Your Mind

The installation process makes no changes to your system until package installation begins. You may use Back to return to previous screens and change your selections at any time.
The on-screen dialog lists the available drives. By default, the installation process may affect all of the drives on your computer. To prevent the installation program from repartitioning specific drives, clear the check box next to those drives on this list.
The installation process erases any existing Linux partitions on the selected drives, and replaces them with the default set of partitions for Fedora. All other types of partitions remain unchanged. For example, partitions used by Microsoft Windows, and system recovery partitions created by the computer manufacturer, are both left intact. You may choose an alternative from the drop-down list:
Remove all partitions on selected drives and create default layout
If the selected hard disks are brand new, or if you want to destroy all data currently on the selected drives, use this option. This option removes all partitions on all selected drives, even those used by non-Linux operating systems.

This Option Destroys All Data

Once you have selected all installation options and proceed, all data on the selected drives will be destroyed. Use this option with caution.
Remove linux partitions on selected drives and create default layout
If the selected drives have any Linux partitions, this option removes them and installs Fedora into the resulting free space. This option does not modify partitions assigned to other non-Linux operating systems. It does not discriminate, however, between partitions assigned to different Linux distributions, and will remove all of them.
Use free space on selected drives and create default layout
If the selected drives have free space that has not been assigned to a partition, this option installs Fedora into the free space. This option ensures that no existing partition is modified by the installation process.
Create custom layout
You manually specify the partitioning on the selected drives. The next screen enables you to configure the drives and partitions for your computer. If you choose this option, Fedora creates no partitions by default.
Select Review and modify partitioning layout to customize the set of partitions that Fedora creates, to configure your system to use drives in RAID arrays, or to modify the boot options for your computer. If you choose one of the alternative partitioning options, this is automatically selected.
Use the Advanced storage options option if:
  • You want to install Fedora to a drive connected through the iSCSI protocol. Select Advanced storage options, then select Add iSCSI target, then select Add drive. Provide an IP address and the iSCSI initiator name, and select Add drive.
  • You want to disable a dmraid device that was detected at boot time.
Choose a partitioning option, and select Next to proceed.

The Next Screen

The next screen is Network Devices, explained Chapter 11, Network Configuration, unless you select an option to customize the partition layout. If you choose to either Create custom layout, or Review and modify partitioning layout, proceed to Section 9.2, “General Information on Partitions”.

9.1. RAID and Other Disk Devices

9.1.1. Hardware RAID

RAID, or Redundant Array of Independent Disks, allows a group, or array, of drives to act as a single device. Configure any RAID functions provided by the mainboard of your computer, or attached controller cards, before you begin the installation process. Each active RAID array appears as one drive within Fedora.
On systems with more than one hard drive you may configure Fedora to operate several of the drives as a Linux RAID array without requiring any additional hardware.

9.1.2. Software RAID

You can use the Fedora installation program to create Linux software RAID arrays, where RAID functions are controlled by the operating system rather than dedicated hardware. These functions are explained in detail in Section 9.5, “Disk Druid”.

9.1.3. FireWire and USB Disks

Some FireWire and USB hard disks may not be recognized by the Fedora installation system. If configuration of these disks at installation time is not vital, disconnect them to avoid any confusion.

Post-installation Usage

You can connect and configure external FireWire and USB hard disks after installation. Most such devices are recognized by the kernel and available for use at that time.

9.2. General Information on Partitions

A Fedora system has at least three partitions:
  • A /boot partition
  • A / partition
  • A swap partition
Many systems have more partitions than the minimum listed above. Choose partitions based on your particular system needs. For example, consider creating a separate /home partition on systems that store user data. Refer to Section 9.4, “Advice on Partitions” for more information.
If you are not sure how best to configure the partitions for your computer, accept the default partition layout.
The RAM installed in your computer provides a pool of memory for running systems. Linux systems use swap partitions to expand this pool, by automatically moving portions of memory between RAM and swap partitions if insufficient RAM is available. In addition, certain power management features store all of the memory for a suspended system in the available swap partitions. If you manually specify the partitions on your system, create one swap partition that has more capacity than the computer RAM.
Data partitions provide storage for files. Each data partition has a mount point, to indicate the system directory whose contents reside on that partition. A partition with no mount point is not accessible by users. Data not located on any other partition resides in the / (or root) partition.

Root and /root

The / (or root) partition is the top of the directory structure. The /root (sometimes pronounced "slash-root") directory is the home directory of the user account for system administration.
In the minimum configuration shown above:
  • All data under the /boot/ directory resides on the /boot partition. For example, the file /boot/grub/grub.conf resides on the /boot partition.
  • Any file outside of the /boot partition, such as /etc/passwd, resides on the / partition.
Subdirectories may be assigned to partitions as well. Some administrators create both /usr and /usr/local partitions. In that case, files under /usr/local, such as /usr/local/bin/foo, are on the /usr/local partition. Any other files in /usr/, such as /usr/bin/foo, are in the /usr partition.
If you create many partitions instead of one large / partition, upgrades become easier. Refer to the description of Disk Druid's Edit option for more information.

Leave Excess Capacity Unallocated

Only assign storage capacity to those partitions you require immediately. You may allocate free space at any time, to meet needs as they occur. To learn about a more flexible method for storage management, refer to Section 9.3, “Understanding LVM”.

9.2.1. Partition Types

Every partition has a partition type, to indicate the format of the file system on that partition. The file system enables Linux to organize, search, and retrieve files stored on that partition. Use the ext3 file system for data partitions that are not part of LVM, unless you have specific needs that require another type of file system.

9.2.2. Minimum Partition Sizes

The following table summarizes minimum partition sizes for the partitions containing the listed directories. You do not have to make a separate partition for each of these directories. For instance, if the partition containing /foo must be at least 500 MB, and you do not make a separate /foo partition, then the / (root) partition must be at least 500 MB.
DirectoryMinimum size
/250 MB
/usr250 MB
/tmp50 MB
/var384 MB
/home100 MB
/boot75 MB

9.3. Understanding LVM

LVM (Logical Volume Management) partitions provide a number of advantages over standard partitions. LVM partitions are formatted as physical volumes. One or more physical volumes are combined to form a volume group. Each volume group's total storage is then divided into one or more logical volumes. The logical volumes function much like standard partitions. They have a file system type, such as ext3, and a mount point.

The /boot Partition and LVM

The boot loader cannot read LVM volumes. You must make a standard, non-LVM disk partition for your /boot partition.
To understand LVM better, imagine the physical volume as a pile of blocks. A block is simply a storage unit used to store data. Several piles of blocks can be combined to make a much larger pile, just as physical volumes are combined to make a volume group. The resulting pile can be subdivided into several smaller piles of arbitrary size, just as a volume group is allocated to several logical volumes.
An administrator may grow or shrink logical volumes without destroying data, unlike standard disk partitions. If the physical volumes in a volume group are on separate drives or RAID arrays then administrators may also spread a logical volume across the storage devices.
You may lose data if you shrink a logical volume to a smaller capacity than the data on the volume requires. To ensure maximum flexibility, create logical volumes to meet your current needs, and leave excess storage capacity unallocated. You may safely grow logical volumes to use unallocated space, as your needs dictate.

LVM and the Default Partition Layout

By default, the installation process creates / and swap partitions within LVM volumes, with a separate /boot partition.

9.4. Advice on Partitions

Optimal partition setup depends on the usage for the Linux system in question. The following tips may help you decide how to allocate your disk space.
  • If you expect that you or other users will store data on the system, create a separate partition for the /home directory within a volume group. With a separate /home partition, you may upgrade or reinstall Fedora without erasing user data files.
  • Each kernel installed on your system requires approximately 6 MB on the /boot partition. Unless you plan to install a great many kernels, the default partition size of 100 MB for /boot should suffice.
  • The /var directory holds content for a number of applications, including the Apache web server. It also is used to store downloaded update packages on a temporary basis. Ensure that the partition containing the /var directory has enough space to download pending updates and hold your other content.

    Pending Updates

    Because Fedora is a rapidly progressing collection software, the available updates late in a release cycle may be quite sizable. You can add an update repository to the sources for installation later to minimize this issue. Refer to Section 14.1, “Installing from Additional Repositories” for more information.
  • The /usr directory holds the majority of software content on a Fedora system. For an installation of the default set of software, allocate at least 4 GB of space. If you are a software developer or plan to use your Fedora system to learn software development skills, you may want to at least double this allocation.
  • Consider leaving a portion of the space in an LVM volume group unallocated. This unallocated space gives you flexibility if your space requirements change but you do not wish to remove data from other partitions to reallocate storage.
  • If you separate subdirectories into partitions, you can retain content in those subdirectories if you decide to install a new version of Fedora over your current system. For instance, if you intend to run a MySQL database in /var/lib/mysql, make a separate partition for that directory in case you need to reinstall later.
The following table is a possible partition setup for a system with a single, new 80 GB hard disk and 1 GB of RAM. Note that approximately 10 GB of the volume group is unallocated to allow for future growth.

Example Usage

This setup is not optimal for all use cases.
PartitionSize and type
/boot100 MB ext3 partition
swap2 GB swap
LVM physical volumeRemaining space, as one LVM volume group
The physical volume is assigned to the default volume group and divided into the following logical volumes:
PartitionSize and type
/3 GB ext3
/usr8 GB ext3
/usr/local2 GB ext3
/var4 GB ext3
/home50 GB ext3
Example 9.1. Example Partition Setup

9.5. Disk Druid

Disk Druid is an interactive program for editing disk partitions. Users run it only within the Fedora installation system. Disk Druid enables you to configure Linux software RAID and LVM to provide more extensible and reliable data storage.

Modifying the Default LVM Layout

The default layout pools all of the available storage into a single LVM physical volume, with one LVM logical volume for the system. To make capacity available for additional partitions, Edit the logical volume with the mount point /, and reduce its size as necessary.
Disk Druid displays the following actions in the installation program:
New
Select this option to add a partition or LVM physical volume to the disk. In the Add partition dialog, choose a mount point and a partition type. If you have more than one disk on the system, choose which disks the partition may inhabit. Indicate a size in megabytes for the partition.

Illegal Partitions

The /bin/, /dev/, /etc/, /lib/, /proc/, /root/, and /sbin/ directories may not be used for separate partitions in Disk Druid. These directories reside on the / (root) partition.
The /boot partition may not reside on an LVM volume group. Create the /boot partition before configuring any volume groups.
You may also choose from three options for sizing your partition:
Fixed size
Use a fixed size as close to your entry as possible.
Fill all space up to
Grow the partition to a maximum size of your choice.
Fill to maximum allowable size
Grow the partition until it fills the remainder of the selected disks.

Partition Sizes

The actual partition on the disk may be slightly smaller or larger than your choice. Disk geometry issues cause this effect, not an error or bug.
After you enter the details for your partition, select OK to continue.
Edit
Select this option to edit an existing partition, LVM volume group, or an LVM physical volume that is not yet part of a volume group. To change the size of a LVM physical volume partition, first remove it from any volume groups.

Removing LVM Physical Volumes

If you remove an LVM physical volume from a volume group, you erase any logical volumes it contains.
Edit a partition to change its size, mount point, or file system type. Use this function to:
  • correct a mistake in setting up your partitions
  • migrate Linux partitions if you are upgrading or reinstalling Fedora
  • provide a mount point for non-Linux partitions such as those used on some Windows operating systems

Windows Partitions

You may not label Windows partitions that use the NTFS file system with a mount point in the Fedora installer. You may label vfat (FAT16 or FAT32) partitions with a mount point.
If you need to make drastic changes to your partition configuration, you may want to delete partitions and start again. If your disk contains data that you need to keep, back it up before you edit any partitions. If you edit the size of a partition, you may lose all data on it.
If your system contains many separate partitions for system and user data, it is easier to upgrade your system. The installation program allows you to erase or retain data on specific partitions. If your user data is on a separate /home partition, you can retain that data while erasing system partitions such as /boot.
Delete
Select this option to erase an existing partition or LVM physical volume. To delete an LVM physical volume, first delete any volume groups of which that physical volume is a member.
If you make a mistake, use the Reset option to abandon all the changes you have made.
Reset
Select this option to force Disk Druid to abandon all changes made to disk partitions.
RAID
Select this option to set up software RAID on your Fedora system.
Create a software RAID partition
Choose this option to add a partition for software RAID. This option is the only choice available if your disk contains no software RAID partitions.
Create a RAID device
Choose this option to construct a RAID device from two or more existing software RAID partitions. This option is available if two or more software RAID partitions have been configured.
Clone a drive to create a RAID device
Choose this option to set up a RAID mirror of an existing disk. This option is available if two or more disks are attached to the system.
LVM
Select this option to set up LVM on your Fedora system. First create at least one partition or software RAID device as an LVM physical volume, using the New dialog. For more information on LVM, refer to Section 9.3, “Understanding LVM”.
To assign one or more physical volumes to a volume group, first name the volume group. Then select the physical volumes to be used in the volume group. Finally, configure logical volumes on any volume groups using the Add, Edit and Delete options.
You may not remove a physical volume from a volume group if doing so would leave insufficient space for that group's logical volumes. Take for example a volume group made up of two 5 GB LVM physical volume partitions, which contains an 8 GB logical volume. The installer would not allow you to remove either of the component physical volumes, since that would leave only 5 GB in the group for an 8 GB logical volume. If you reduce the total size of any logical volumes appropriately, you may then remove a physical volume from the volume group. In the example, reducing the size of the logical volume to 4 GB would allow you to remove one of the 5 GB physical volumes.

LVM Unavailable in Text Installs

LVM initial set up is not available in a text-mode installation. The installer allows you to edit pre-configured LVM volumes. If you need to create an LVM configuration from scratch, hit Alt+F2 to use the terminal, and run the lvm command. To return to the text-mode installation, hit Alt+F1.
After you finish setting up and reviewing your partition configuration, select Next to continue the installation process.

Chapter 10. Boot Loader

A boot loader is a small program that reads and launches the operating system. Fedora uses the GRUB boot loader by default. If you have multiple operating systems, the boot loader determines which one to boot, usually by offering a menu.
You may have a boot loader installed on your system already. An operating system may install its own preferred boot loader, or you may have installed a third-party boot loader.If your boot loader does not recognize Linux partitions, you may not be able to boot Fedora. Use GRUB as your boot loader to boot Linux and most other operating systems. Follow the directions in this chapter to install GRUB.

Installing GRUB

If you install GRUB, it may overwrite your existing boot loader.

10.1. Keeping Your Existing Boot Loader Settings

By default, the installation program installs GRUB in the master boot record, or MBR, of the device for the root file system. To decline installation of a new boot loader, select No boot loader will be installed.

Boot Loader Required

Your computer must have GRUB or another boot loader installed in order to start, unless you create a separate startup disk to boot from.
You may need to customize the GRUB installation to correctly support some hardware or system configurations. To specify compatibility settings, select Configure advanced boot loader options. This causes a second screen of options to appear when you choose Next. Section 10.4, “Advanced Boot Loader Options” explains the features of the additional screen.

10.2. Booting Additional Operating Systems

If you have other operating systems already installed, Fedora attempts to automatically detect and configure GRUB to boot them. You may manually configure any additional operating systems if GRUB does not detect them.
To add, remove, or change the detected operating system settings, use the options provided.
Add
Select Add to include an additional operating system in GRUB.
Select the disk partition which contains the bootable operating system from the drop-down list and give the entry a label. GRUB displays this label in its boot menu.
Edit
To change an entry in the GRUB boot menu, select the entry and then select Edit.
Delete
To remove an entry from the GRUB boot menu, select the entry and then select Delete.

10.3. Setting a Boot Loader Password

GRUB reads many file systems without the help of an operating system. An operator can interrupt the booting sequence to choose a different operating system to boot, change boot options, or recover from a system error. However, these functions may introduce serious security risks in some environments. You can add a password to GRUB so that the operator must enter the password to interrupt the normal boot sequence.

GRUB Passwords Not Required

You may not require a GRUB password if your system only has trusted operators, or is physically secured with controlled console access. However, if an untrusted person can get physical access to your computer's keyboard and monitor, that person can reboot the system and access GRUB. A password is helpful in this case.
To set a boot password, select the Use a boot loader password check box. The Change password button will become active. Select Change password to display an entry dialog. Type the desired password, and then confirm it by typing it again in the spaces provided.

Choose a Good Password

Choose a password that is easy for you to remember but hard for others to guess.

10.3.1. Forgotten GRUB Passwords

GRUB stores the password in encrypted form, so it cannot be read or recovered. If you forget the boot password, boot the system normally and then change the password entry in the /boot/grub/grub.conf file. If you cannot boot, you may be able to use the "rescue" mode on the first Fedora installation disc to reset the GRUB password.
If you do need to change the GRUB password, use the grub-md5-crypt utility. For information on using this utility, use the command man grub-md5-crypt in a terminal window to read the manual pages.

10.4. Advanced Boot Loader Options

The default boot options are adequate for most situations. The installation program writes the GRUB boot loader in the master boot record (MBR), overwriting any existing boot loader.
You may keep your current boot loader in the MBR and install GRUB as a secondary boot loader. If you choose this option, the installer program will write GRUB to the first sector of the Linux /boot partition.

GRUB as a Secondary Boot Loader

If you install GRUB as a secondary boot loader, you must reconfigure your primary boot loader whenever you install and boot from a new kernel. The kernel of an operating system such as Microsoft Windows does not boot in the same fashion. Most users therefore use GRUB as the primary boot loader on dual-boot systems.
You may also need the advanced options if your BIOS enumerates your drives or RAID arrays differently than Fedora expects. If necessary, use the Change Drive Order dialog to set the order of the devices in Fedora to match your BIOS.
On a few systems, Fedora may not configure the disk drive geometry for large disks correctly because of limitations within the BIOS. To work around this problem, mark the Force LBA32 check box.
The Linux kernel usually auto-detects its environment correctly, and no additional kernel parameters are needed. However, you may provide any needed kernel parameter using the advanced boot loader options.

Kernel Parameters

For a partial list of the kernel command line parameters, type the following command in a terminal window: man bootparam. For a comprehensive and authoritative list, refer to the documentation provided in the kernel sources.
To alter any of these settings, mark the Configure advanced boot loader options check box. Select Next and the advanced boot options menu appears.

Optional Menu

Fedora displays the advanced boot options menu only if the advanced configuration check box described above has been selected.

Chapter 11. Network Configuration

Use this screen to customize the network settings of your Fedora system.
Manual network configuration of a Fedora system is often not required. Many networks have a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) service that automatically supplies connected systems with configuration data. By default, Fedora activates all network interfaces on your computer and configures them to use DHCP.
Fedora contains complete support for both IPv4 and IPv6. By default, Fedora configures network interfaces on your computer for both IPv4 and IPv6 support, and to use DHCP over both IPv4 and IPv6. For more information about IPv6, refer to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPv6.
Many home Internet routers and firewalls do not include support for IPv6. The default settings will not harm your system or router in any way. However, the speed of some services improves drastically if you disable IPv6 on any interface on a network that does not use IPv6.

IPv6 and Boot Options

You can disable IPv6 support in the installation program using the boot option noipv6. The installation program does not configure network interfaces for IPv6 if you use this option. For more information on boot options, refer to Appendix A, Boot Options.

11.1. Network Devices

Fedora displays a list of network interfaces detected on your computer. Each interface must have a unique IP address on the network to which it is attached. The interface may receive this address from the network DHCP service.
Specify whether an interface should be automatically activated at boot time with the Active on Boot check box for that device. You may manually activate a network interface at any time after the system has booted.

Modem Configuration

The Network Configuration screen does not list modems. Configure these devices after installation with the Network utility. The settings for your modem are specific to your particular Internet Service Provider (ISP).

11.1.1. Configuring IPv4 and IPv6 Support

To add or remove IPv4 or IPv6 support, highlight the interface on the Network Device list and select Edit. Fedora displays the Edit Interface dialog. If the interface is not configured for IPv4 or IPv6 protocol, that entry is marked Disabled.
To change the selection, select or deselect the appropriate checkbox. If necessary, change the network address configuration for the interface.

DHCP and Servers

If this computer system is a server, avoid DHCP if possible, and manually configure networking. Manual network configuration allows your server to join the local network even if the DHCP provider is down.

11.1.2. Configuring IPv4

To assign an unchanging, or static, IP address to your system, highlight the interface on the Network Device list and select Edit. Fedora then displays the Edit Interface dialog.
Deselect the Configure using DHCP check box, so that it is empty. Enter the IP Address and the appropriate Netmask for the interface, then select OK.
If you disable DHCP, automatic configuration of the Hostname is also disabled, and the Miscellaneous Settings options are enabled. Refer to Section 11.3, “Miscellaneous Settings” for more information.

11.1.3. Configuring IPv6

If IPv6 is enabled, the installation program defaults to using Automatic neighbor discovery. If you want to change the default, select either DHCPv6 for IPv6-compliant dynamic IP addressing, or Manual configuration to enter IP information manually.
To assign a static IPv6 address, enter the IP Address and the appropriate Prefix for the interface, then select OK.

11.2. Hostname

On some networks, the DHCP provider also provides the name of the computer, or hostname. To specify the hostname, select Manual and type the complete name in the box. The complete hostname includes both the name of the machine and the name of the domain of which it is a member, such as machine1.example.com. The machine name (or "short hostname") is machine1, and the domain name is example.com.
To set up a home network that is behind an Internet firewall or router, you may want to use hostname.localdomain for your Fedora system. If you have more than one computer on this network, you should give each one a separate host name in this domain.

Valid Hostnames

You may give your system any name provided that the full hostname is unique. The hostname may include letters, numbers and hyphens.
If your Fedora system is connected directly to the Internet, you must pay attention to additional considerations to avoid service interruptions or risk action by your upstream service provider. A full discussion of these issues is beyond the scope of this document.

11.3. Miscellaneous Settings

To manually configure a network interface, you may also provide other network settings for your computer. All of these settings are the IP addresses of other systems on the network.
A gateway is the device that provides access to other networks. Gateways are also referred to as routers. If your system connects to other networks through a gateway, enter its IP address in the Gateway box.
Most software relies on the DNS (Domain Name Service) provider to locate machines and services on the network. DNS converts hostnames to IP addresses and vice versa. A Fedora system may use more than one DNS server. If the primary DNS server does not respond, the computer sends any query to the secondary DNS server, and so on. To assign DNS servers, type their IP addresses into the Primary DNS or Secondary DNS boxes.
Select Next once you are satisfied with the network settings for your system.

Chapter 12. Time Zone Selection

This screen allows you to specify the correct time zone for the location of your computer. Specify a time zone even if you plan to use NTP (Network Time Protocol) to maintain the accuracy of the system clock.

12.1. Selecting a Time Zone

Fedora displays on the screen two methods for selecting the time zone. To select a time zone using the map, first place your mouse pointer over your region on the map. Click once to magnify that region on the map. Next, select the yellow dot that represents the city nearest to your location. Once you select a dot, it becomes a red X to indicate your selection.
To select a time zone using the list, select the name of the city nearest to your location. The cities are listed in alphabetical order.

12.2. Universal Co-ordinated Time (UTC)

For purposes of addressing time zones, Universal Co-ordinated Time is also known as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
If Fedora is the only operating system on your computer, select System clock uses UTC. The system clock is a piece of hardware on your computer system. Fedora uses the timezone setting to determine the offset between the local time and UTC on the system clock. This behavior is standard for UNIX-like operating systems.

Windows and the System Clock

Do not enable the System clock uses UTC option if your machine also runs Microsoft Windows. Microsoft operating systems change the BIOS clock to match local time rather than UTC. This may cause unexpected behavior under Fedora.
Select Next to proceed.

Chapter 13. Set the Root Password

Fedora uses a special account named root for system administration. The root account on a Linux system is not subject to most normal account restrictions. As the system owner or administrator, you may sometimes require special privileges to configure or modify the system. In those cases, use the root account.

Using the root Account

Avoid logging in to Fedora as root when possible. Any administration tools which require root privileges will prompt you for the password.
The Fedora installation program requires the root password to be at least six characters long. Because the root account may potentially control any part of the system, use the following guidelines to create a good password:
  • Use a combination of uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numbers, punctuation and other characters.
  • Do not use a word or name. Obscuring the word or name with substitute characters is not effective.
  • Do not use the same password for more than one system.
The following are examples of good passwords:
  • f9*@1Ls99A
  • HL8$391%%rb
  • Iwtb,10^th
Enter the root password into the Root Password field. Fedora displays the characters as asterisks for security. Type the same password into the Confirm field to ensure it is set correctly. After you set the root password, select Next to proceed.

Chapter 14. Software Selection

By default, the Fedora installation process loads a selection of software that is suitable for a desktop system. To include or remove software for common tasks, select the relevant items from the list:
Office and Productivity
This option provides the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, the Planner project management application, graphical tools such as the GIMP, and multimedia applications.
Software Development
This option provides the necessary tools to compile software on your Fedora system.
Web server
This option provides the Apache Web server.

14.1. Installing from Additional Repositories

You can define additional repositories to increase the software available to your system during installation. A repository is a network location that stores software packages along with metadata that describes them. Many of the software packages used in Fedora require other software to be installed. The installer uses the metadata to ensure that these requirements are met for every piece of software you select for installation.
To include software from repositories other than the Fedora package collection, select Add additional software repositories. The following list includes examples of ways you can use this option.
  • Get the Latest Fedora Software
    If you provide the location of a repository of updates for Fedora, your system will have the most recent versions of Fedora software. You will not need to peform a system update immediately after installation to get these updates. This usage is ideal if you are installing over the Internet or any network where bandwidth is a concern.

    Upgrading and Updates

    Package updates during the release cycle of a single verison of Fedora are intended to upgrade only that version. If you are upgrading a previous version of Fedora, you may encounter problems if you include an update repository during this step. Problems are less likely when performing a fresh installation.
  • Install Third-party Software
    You may provide the location of a repository of third-party software. Depending on the configuration of that repository, you may be able to select non-Fedora software during installation.
If you select Add additional software repositories, the Add repository dialog appears. Provide a Repository name and the Repository URL for its location.

Fedora Software Mirrors

To find a Fedora software mirror near you, refer to http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Mirrors.
Once you provide information for an additional repository, the installer reads the package metadata over the network. Software that is specially marked is then included in the package group selection system. See Section 14.2, “Customizing the Software Selection” for more information on selecting packages.

Backtracking Removes Repository Metadata

If you choose Back from the package selection screen, any extra repository data you may have entered is lost. This allows you to effectively cancel extra repositories. Currently there is no way to cancel only a single repository once entered.

14.2. Customizing the Software Selection

Select Customize now to specify the software packages for your final system in more detail. This option causes the installation process to display an additional customization screen when you select Next.

Installing Support for Additional Languages

Select Customize now to install support for additional languages. Refer to Section 14.2.2, “Additional Language Support” for more information on configuring language support.
Fedora divides the included software into package groups. For ease of use, the package selection screen displays these groups as six categories:
Package group selection screen.
Figure 14.1. Package Group Selection Screen

To view the package groups for a category, select the category from the list on the left. The list on the right displays the package groups for the currently selected category.
To specify a package group for installation, select the check box next to the group. The box at the bottom of the screen displays the details of the package group that is currently highlighted. None of the packages from a group will be installed unless the check box for that group is selected.
If you select a package group, Fedora automatically installs the base and mandatory packages for that group. To change which optional packages within a selected group will be installed, select the Optional Packages button under the description of the group. Then use the check box next to an individual package name to change its selection.
After you choose the desired packages, select Next to proceed. Fedora checks your selection, and automatically adds any extra packages required to use the software you select.

14.2.1. Changing Your Mind

The packages that you select are not permanent. After you boot your system, use the pirut tool to either install new software or remove installed packages. To run this tool, from the main menu, select ApplicationsAdd/Remove Software. The Fedora software management system downloads the latest packages from network servers, rather than using those on the installation discs.

14.2.2. Additional Language Support

Your Fedora system automatically supports the language that you selected at the start of the installation process. To include support for additional languages, select the package group for those languages from the Languages category.

14.2.3. Core Network Services

All Fedora Core installations include the following network services:
  • centralized logging through syslog
  • email through SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
  • network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
  • remote access through SSH (Secure SHell)
  • resource advertising through mDNS (multicast DNS)
The default installation also provides:
  • network file transfer through HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
  • printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
  • remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
Some automated processes on your Fedora system use the email service to send reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email, logging, and printing services do not accept connections from other systems. Fedora installs the NFS sharing, HTTP, and VNC components without enabling those services.
You may configure your Fedora system after installation to offer email, file sharing, logging, printing and remote desktop access services. The SSH service is enabled by default. You may use NFS to access files on other systems without enabling the NFS sharing service.

Chapter 15. About to Install

No changes are made to your computer until you click the Next button. If you abort the installation process after that point, the Fedora system will be incomplete and unusable. To return to previous screens to make different choices, select Back. To abort the installation, turn off the computer.

Aborting Installation

In certain situations, you may be unable to return to previous screens. Fedora notifies you of this restriction and allows you to abort the installation program. You may reboot with the installation media to start over.
Click Next to begin the installation.

Chapter 16. Installing Packages

Fedora reports the installation progress on the screen as it writes the selected packages to your system. Network and DVD installations require no further action. If you are using CDs to install, Fedora prompts you to change discs periodically. After you insert a disc, select OK to resume the installation.
After installation completes, select Reboot to restart your computer. Fedora ejects any loaded discs before the computer reboots.

Chapter 17. First Boot

The Setup Agent launches the first time that you start a new Fedora system. Use Setup Agent to configure the system for use before you log in.
Select Forward to start the Setup Agent.

Graphical Interface Required

Setup Agent requires a graphical interface. If you did not install one, or if Fedora has trouble starting it, you may see a slightly different setup screen.

17.1. License Agreement

This screen displays the overall licensing terms for Fedora. Each software package in Fedora is covered by its own license which has been approved by the Open Source Initiative (OSI). For more information about the OSI, refer to http://www.opensource.org/.
To proceed, select Yes, I agree to the License Agreement and then select Forward.

17.2. Firewall

The firewall built into Fedora checks every incoming and outgoing network connection on your machine against a set of rules. These rules specify which types of connections are permitted and which are denied.
By default the firewall is enabled, with a simple set of rules that allow connections to be made from your system to others, but permit only network browsing and SSH (Secure SHell) connections from other systems. You may make changes on this screen to allow access to specific network services on your Fedora system.
To enable access to the services listed on this screen, click the check box next to the service name.

SSH Provides Immediate Remote Access

All Fedora systems automatically run the SSH remote access service, and the default firewall configuration allows connections to this service. The default configuration ensures that administrators have immediate remote access to new systems through the user and root accounts.
To enable access to other services, select Other ports, and Add the details. Use the Port(s) field to specify either the port number, or the registered name of the service. Select the relevant Protocol from the drop-down. The majority of services use the TCP protocol.

The Services List

The /etc/services file lists service port numbers and names that are registered with the Internet Assigned Names Authority (IANA).
If a service uses more than one port number, enter each port. For example, an IMAP service enables users to access their e-mail from another system through TCP port 143. To permit IMAP connections to your system, add imap or port number 143.
Avoid disabling the firewall. If you believe that it is necessary to do so, select No firewall.

Changing the Firewall Settings

To change these settings later, choose SystemAdministrationSecurity Level and Firewall.

17.3. SELinux

The SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux) framework is part of Fedora. SELinux limits the actions of both users and programs by enforcing security policies throughout the operating system. Without SELinux, software bugs or configuration changes may render a system more vulnerable. The restrictions imposed by SELinux policies provide extra security against unauthorized access.
Inflexible SELinux policies might inhibit many normal activities on a Fedora system. For this reason, Fedora uses targeted policies, which only affect specific network services. These services cannot perform actions that are not part of their normal functions. The targeted policies reduce or eliminate any inconvenience SELinux might cause users. Set the SELinux mode to one of the following:
Enforcing
Select this mode to use the targeted SELinux policy on your Fedora system. This is the default mode for Fedora installations.
Permissive
In this mode, the system is configured with SELinux, but a breach of security policies only causes an error message to appear. No activities are actually prohibited when SELinux is installed in this mode. You may change the SELinux mode to Enforcing at any time after booting.
Disabled
If you choose this mode for SELinux, Fedora does not configure the access control system at all. To make SELinux active later, select SystemAdministrationSecurity Level and Firewall.
To adjust SELinux, choose Modify SELinux Policy. To exempt a key service from SELinux restrictions, select the service from the list, and choose the Disable SELinux protection option. The SELinux Service Protection item on the list includes options to disable SELinux restrictions on additional services.

Changing the SELinux policy

SELinux is unique in that it cannot be bypassed, even by the system administrators. To change the behavior of SELinux after installation, choose SystemAdministrationSecurity Level and Firewall.
For more information about SELinux, refer to the SELinux FAQ at http://docs.fedoraproject.org/selinux-faq/.

17.4. Date and Time

If your system does not have Internet access or a network time server, manually set the date and time for your system on this screen. Otherwise, use NTP (Network Time Protocol) servers to maintain the accuracy of the clock. NTP provides time synchronization service to computers on the same network. The Internet contains many computers that offer public NTP services.
The initial display enables you to set the date and time of your system manually.
Select the Network Time Protocol tab to configure your system to use NTP servers instead.

Setting the Clock

To change these settings later, choose SystemAdministrationDate & Time.
To configure your system to use network time servers, select the Enable Network Time Protocol option. This option disables the settings on the Date and Time tab and enables the other settings on this screen.
By default, Fedora is configured to use three separate groups, or pools, of time servers. Time server pools create redundancy, so if one time server is unavailable, your system synchronizes with another server.
To use an additional time server, select Add, and type the DNS name of the server into the box. To remove a server or server pool from the list, select the name and click Delete.
If your machine is always connected to the Internet through a wired connection, select the Synchronize system clock before starting service option. This option may cause a short delay during startup but ensures accurate time on your system even if the clock is significantly wrong at boot time.

Laptops and NTP

Do not use this option with laptop computers that sometimes use wireless networks.
If the hardware clock in your computer is highly inaccurate, you may turn off your local time source entirely. To turn off the local time source, select Show advanced options and then deselect the Use Local Time Source option. If you turn off your local time source, the NTP servers take priority over the internal clock.
If you enable the Enable NTP Broadcast advanced option, Fedora attempts to automatically locate time servers on the network.

17.5. System User

Create a user account for yourself with this screen. Always use this account to log in to your Fedora system, rather than using the root account.
Enter a user name and your full name, and then enter your chosen password. Type your password once more in the Confirm Password box to ensure that it is correct. Refer to Chapter 13, Set the Root Password for guidelines on selecting a secure password.

Creating Extra User Accounts

To add additional user accounts to your system after the installation is complete, choose SystemAdministrationUsers & Groups.
To configure Fedora to use network services for authentication or user information, select Use Network Login....

17.6. Sound Card

The Setup Agent automatically attempts to identify the sound card in your computer.
Click the play button to check the sound card configuration. If the configuration is correct, Fedora plays a sound sequence. You may adjust the volume with the slidebar. The Repeat option causes the sound to play until the option is unselected, to assist you in tuning your system.
If your sound card is identified, but you do not hear the sound, check your speakers and try again. In some cases, you may need to alter the additional settings to obtain the best sound quality.
A sound card may provide multiple audio input and output devices. To change the Default PCM device, select a new option from the drop-down list. By default, audio applications connect to a software mixer that manages the PCM devices. To enable applications to bypass the software mixer, select the option to Disable software mixing.
You may manually configure a Fedora system to use unsupported sound cards after the installation process is complete. Manual sound hardware configuration is beyond the scope of this document.

Changing the Sound Card

Fedora automatically attempts to detect a new sound card if you add one to your system. If you need to launch the detection process manually, choose SystemAdministrationSoundcard Detection.
After you configure the sound card, select Finish to proceed to the login screen. Your Fedora system is now ready for use.

Update Your System

To ensure the security of your system, run a package update after the installation completes. Chapter 18, Your Next Steps explains how to update your Fedora system.

Chapter 18. Your Next Steps

Fedora provides you with a complete operating system with a vast range of capabilities, supported by a large community.

18.1. Updating Your System

The Fedora Project releases updated software packages for Fedora throughout the support period of each version. Updated packages add new features, improve reliability, resolve bugs, or remove security vulnerabilities. To ensure the security of your system, update regularly, and as soon as possible after a security announcement is issued. Refer to Section 18.2, “Subscribing to Fedora Announcements and News” for information on the Fedora announcements services.
A new update applet, called puplet, reminds you of updates when they are available. The puplet applet is installed by default in Fedora. It checks for software updates from all configured repositories, and runs as a background service. It generates a notification message on the desktop if updates are found, and you can click the message to update your system's software.
To update your system with the latest packages manually, use the Software Updater:
  1. Choose ApplicationsSystem ToolsSoftware Updater.
  2. When prompted, enter the root password.
  3. Review the list of updated packages. The package list displays a double arrow next to any updates that require a system reboot to take effect.
  4. Click Apply Updates to begin the update process.
  5. If one or more updates require a system reboot, the update process displays a dialog with the option to Reboot Now. Either select this option to reboot the system immediately, or Cancel it and reboot the system at a more convenient time.
To update packages from the command-line, use the yum utility. Type this command to begin a full update of your system with yum:
su -c 'yum update'
Enter the root password when prompted.
Refer to http://docs.fedoraproject.org/yum/ for more information on yum.

Network Connection Required

Ensure that your system has an active network connection before you run the Software Updater, or the yum utility. The update process downloads information and packages from a network of servers.
If your Fedora system has a permanent network connection, you may choose to enable daily system updates. To enable automatic updates, follow the instructions on the webpage http://docs.fedoraproject.org/yum/sn-updating-your-system.html.

18.2. Subscribing to Fedora Announcements and News

To receive information about package updates, subscribe to either the announcements mailing list, or the RSS feeds.
Fedora Project announcements mailing list
Fedora Project RSS feeds
The announcements mailing list also provides you with news on the Fedora Project, and the Fedora community.

Security Announcements

Announcements with the keyword [SECURITY] in the title identify package updates that resolve security vulnerabilities.

18.3. Finding Documentation and Support

Members of the Fedora community provides support through mailing lists, Web forums and Linux User Groups (LUGs) across the world.
The Web site for the formally endorsed forums is http://forums.fedoraforum.org/.
The following resources provide information on many aspects of Fedora:
Many other organizations and individuals also provide tutorials and HOWTOs for Fedora on their Web sites. You can locate information on any topic by using Google's Linux search site, located at http://www.google.com/linux.

18.4. Joining the Fedora Community

The Fedora Project is driven by the individuals that contribute to it. Community members provide support and documentation to other users, help to improve the software included in Fedora by testing, and develop new software alongside the programmers employed by Red Hat. The results of this work are available to all.
To make a difference, start here:

Boot Options

The Fedora installation system includes a range of functions and options for administrators. To use boot options, enter linux option at the boot: prompt.
If you specify more than one option, separate each of the options by a single space. For example:
linux option1 option2 option3

Rescue Mode

The Fedora installation and rescue discs may either boot with rescue mode, or load the installation system. For more information on rescue discs and rescue mode, refer to Section A.6.2, “Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode”.

A.1. Configuring the Installation System at the Boot Menu

You can use the boot menu to specify a number of settings for the installation system, including:
  • language
  • display resolution
  • interface type
  • Installation method
  • network settings

A.1.1. Specifying the Language

To set the language for both the installation process and the final system, specify the ISO code for that language with the lang option. Use the keymap option to configure the correct keyboard layout.
For example, the ISO codes el_GR and gr identify the Greek language and the Greek keyboard layout:
linux lang=el_GR keymap=gr

A.1.2. Configuring the Interface

You may force the installation system to use the lowest possible screen resolution (640x480) with the lowres option. To use a specific display resolution, enter resolution=setting as a boot option. For example, to set the display resolution to 1024x768, enter:
linux resolution=1024x768
To run the installation process in text mode, enter:
  linux text
To enable support for a serial console, enter serial as an additional option.

A.1.3. Specifying the Installation Method

Use the askmethod option to display additional menus that enable you to specify the installation method and network settings. You may also configure the installation method and network settings at the boot: prompt itself.
To specify the installation method from the boot: prompt, use the method option. Refer to Table A.1, “Installation Methods” for the supported installation methods.
Installation Method Option Format
CD or DVD drive
method=cdrom
Hard Drive
method=hd://device/
HTTP Server
method=http://server.mydomain.com/directory/
FTP Server
method=ftp://server.mydomain.com/directory/
NFS Server
method=nfs:server.mydomain.com:/directory/
Table A.1. Installation Methods

A.1.4. Manually Configuring the Network Settings

By default, the installation system uses DHCP to automatically obtain the correct network settings. To manually configure the network settings yourself, either enter them in the Configure TCP/IP screen, or at the boot: prompt. You may specify the ip address, netmask, gateway, and dns server settings for the installation system at the prompt. If you specify the network configuration at the boot: prompt, these settings are used for the installation process, and the Configure TCP/IP screen does not appear.
This example configures the network settings for an installation system that uses the IP address 192.168.1.10:
linux ip=192.168.1.10 netmask=255.255.255.0 gateway=192.168.1.1 dns=192.168.1.2,192.168.1.3

Configuring the Installed System

Use the Network Configuration screen to specify the network settings for the new system. Refer to Chapter 11, Network Configuration for more information on configuring the network settings for the installed system.

A.2. Enabling Remote Access to the Installation System

You may access either graphical or text interfaces for the installation system from any other system. Access to a text mode display requires telnet, which is installed by default on Fedora systems. To remotely access the graphical display of an installation system, use client software that supports the VNC (Virtual Network Computing) display protocol. A number of providers offer VNC clients for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS, as well as UNIX-based systems.

Installing a VNC Client on Fedora

Fedora includes vncviewer, the client provided by the developers of VNC. To obtain vncviewer, install the vnc package.
The installation system supports two methods of establishing a VNC connection. You may start the installation, and manually login to the graphical display with a VNC client on another system. Alternatively, you may configure the installation system to automatically connect to a VNC client on the network that is running in listening mode.

A.2.1. Enabling Remote Access with VNC

To enable remote graphical access to the installation system, enter two options at the prompt:
linux vnc vncpassword=qwerty
The vnc option enables the VNC service. The vncpassword option sets a password for remote access. The example shown above sets the password as qwerty.

VNC Passwords

The VNC password must be at least six characters long.
Specify the language, keyboard layout and network settings for the installation system with the screens that follow. You may then access the graphical interface through a VNC client. The installation system displays the correct connection setting for the VNC client:
Starting VNC... 
The VNC server is now running. 
Please connect to computer.mydomain.com:1 to begin the install... 
Starting graphical installation... 
Press <enter> for a shell
You may then login to the installation system with a VNC client. To run the vncviewer client on Fedora, choose ApplicationsAccessoriesVNC Viewer, or type the command vncviewer in a terminal window. Enter the server and display number in the VNC Server dialog. For the example above, the VNC Server is computer.mydomain.com:1.

A.2.2. Connecting the Installation System to a VNC Listener

To have the installation system automatically connect to a VNC client, first start the client in listening mode. On Fedora systems, use the -listen option to run vncviewer as a listener. In a terminal window, enter the command:
 vncviewer -listen

Firewall Reconfiguration Required

By default, vncviewer uses TCP port 5500 when in listening mode. To permit connections to this port from other systems, choose SystemAdministrationSecurity Level and Firewall. Select Other ports, and Add. Enter 5500 in the Port(s) field, and specify tcp as the Protocol.
Once the listening client is active, start the installation system and set the VNC options at the boot: prompt. In addition to vnc and vncpassword options, use the vncconnect option to specify the name or IP address of the system that has the listening client. To specify the TCP port for the listener, add a colon and the port number to the name of the system.
For example, to connect to a VNC client on the system desktop.mydomain.com on the port 5500, enter the following at the boot: prompt:
linux vnc vncpassword=qwerty vncconnect=desktop.mydomain.com:5500

A.2.3. Enabling Remote Access with Telnet

To enable remote access to a text mode installation, use the telnet option at the boot: prompt:
linux text telnet
You may then connect to the installation system with the telnet utility. The telnet command requires the name or IP address of the installation system:
telnet computer.mydomain.com

Telnet Access Requires No Password

To ensure the security of the installation process, only use the telnet option to install systems on networks with restricted access.

A.3. Logging to a Remote System During the Installation

By default, the installation process sends log messages to the console as they are generated. You may specify that these messages go to a remote system that runs a syslog service.
To configure remote logging, add the syslog option. Specify the IP address of the logging system, and the UDP port number of the log service on that system. By default, syslog services that accept remote messages listen on UDP port 514.
For example, to connect to a syslog service on the system 192.168.1.20, enter the following at the boot: prompt:
linux syslog=192.168.1.20:514

A.3.1. Configuring a Log Server

Fedora uses syslogd to provide a syslog service. The default configuration of syslogd rejects messages from remote systems.

Only Enable Remote Syslog Access on Secured Networks

The syslogd service includes no security measures. Crackers may slow or crash systems that permit access to the logging service, by sending large quantities of false log messages. In addition, hostile users may intercept or falsify messages sent to the logging service over the network.
To configure a Fedora system to accept log messages from other systems on the network, edit the file /etc/sysconfig/syslog. You must use root privileges to edit the file /etc/sysconfig/syslog. Add the option -r to the SYSLOGD_OPTIONS:
SYSLOGD_OPTIONS="-m 0 -r"
Restart the syslogd service to apply the change:
su -c '/sbin/service syslog restart'
Enter the root password when prompted.

Firewall Reconfiguration Required

By default, the syslog service listens on UDP port 514. To permit connections to this port from other systems, choose SystemAdministrationSecurity Level and Firewall. Select Other ports, and Add. Enter 514 in the Port(s) field, and specify udp as the Protocol.

A.4. Automating the Installation with Kickstart

A Kickstart file specifies settings for an installation. Once the installation system boots, it can read a Kickstart file and carry out the installation process without any further input from a user.

Every Installation Produces a Kickstart File

The Fedora installation process automatically writes a Kickstart file that contains the settings for the installed system. This file is always saved as /root/anaconda-ks.cfg. You may use this file to repeat the installation with identical settings, or modify copies to specify settings for other systems.
Fedora includes a graphical application to create and modify Kickstart files by selecting the options that you require. Use the package system-config-kickstart to install this utility. To load the Fedora Kickstart editor, choose ApplicationsSystem ToolsKickstart.
Kickstart files list installation settings in plain text, with one option per line. This format lets you modify your Kickstart files with any text editor, and write scripts or applications that generate custom Kickstart files for your systems.
To automate the installation process with a Kickstart file, use the ks option to specify the name and location of the file:
 linux ks=location/kickstart-file.cfg
You may use Kickstart files that are held on either removable storage, a hard drive, or a network server. Refer to Table A.2, “Kickstart Sources” for the supported Kickstart sources.
Kickstart Source Option Format
CD or DVD drive
ks=cdrom:/directory/ks.cfg
Hard Drive
ks=hd:/device/directory/ks.cfg
Other Device
ks=file:/device/directory/ks.cfg
HTTP Server
ks=http://server.mydomain.com/directory/ks.cfg
FTP Server
ks=ftp://server.mydomain.com/directory/ks.cfg
NFS Server
ks=nfs:server.mydomain.com:/directory/ks.cfg
Table A.2. Kickstart Sources

To obtain a Kickstart file from a script or application on a Web server, specify the URL of the application with the ks= option. If you add the option kssendmac, the request also sends HTTP headers to the Web application. Your application can use these headers to identify the computer. This line sends a request with headers to the application http://server.mydomain.com/kickstart.cgi:
linux ks=http://server.mydomain.com/kickstart.cgi kssendmac

A.5. Enhancing Hardware Support

By default, Fedora attempts to automatically detect and configure support for all of the components of your computer. Fedora supports the majority of hardware in common use with the software drivers that are included with the operating system. To support other devices you may supply additional drivers during the installation process, or at a later time.

A.5.1. Adding Hardware Support with Driver Disks

The installation system can load drivers from disks, pen drives, or network servers to configure support for new devices. After the installation is complete, remove any driver disks and store them for later use.
Hardware manufacturers may supply driver disks for Fedora with the device, or provide image files to prepare the disks. To obtain the latest drivers, download the correct file from the website of the manufacturer.

Driver Disks Supplied as Zipped Files

Driver disk images may be distributed as compressed archives, or zip files. For identification, the names of zip files include the extensions .zip, or .tar.gz. To extract the contents of a zipped file with a Fedora system, choose ApplicationsAccessoriesArchive Manager.
To format a disk or pen drive with an image file, use the dd utility. For example, to prepare a diskette with the image file drivers.img, enter this command in a terminal window:
 dd if=drivers.img of=/dev/fd0
To use a driver disk in the installation process, specify the dd option at the boot: prompt:
 linux dd
When prompted, select Yes to provide a driver disk. Choose the drive that holds the driver disk from the list on the Driver Disk Source text screen.
The installation system can also read drivers from disk images that are held on network servers. Refer to Table A.3, “Driver Disk Image Sources” for the supported sources of driver disk image files.
Image Source Option Format
Select a drive or device
dd
HTTP Server
dd=http://server.mydomain.com/directory/drivers.img
FTP Server
dd=ftp://server.mydomain.com/directory/drivers.img
NFS Server
dd=nfs:server.mydomain.com:/directory/drivers.img
Table A.3. Driver Disk Image Sources

A.5.2. Overriding Automatic Hardware Detection

For some models of device automatic hardware configuration may fail, or cause instability. In these cases, you may need to disable automatic configuration for that type of device, and take additional steps to manually configure the device after the installation process is complete.

Check the Release Notes

Refer to the Release Notes for information on known issues with specific devices.
To override the automatic hardware detection, use one or more of the following options:
Compatibility Setting Option
Disable all hardware detection
noprobe
Disable graphics, keyboard, and mouse detection
headless
Disable automatic monitor detection (DDC)
skipddc
Disable mainboard APIC
noapic
Disable power management (ACPI)
acpi=off
Disable Direct Memory Access (DMA) for IDE drives
ide=nodma
Disable BIOS-assisted RAID
nodmraid
Disable Firewire device detection
nofirewire
Disable parallel port detection
noparport
Disable PC Card (PCMCIA) device detection
nopcmcia
Disable USB storage device detection
nousbstorage
Disable all USB device detection
nousb
Force Firewire device detection
firewire
Prompt user for ISA device configuration
isa
Table A.4. Hardware Options

Additional Screen

The isa option causes the system to display an additional text screen at the beginning of the installation process. Use this screen to configure the ISA devices on your computer.

A.6. Using the Maintenance Boot Modes

A.6.1. Loading the Memory (RAM) Testing Mode

Faults in memory modules may cause your system to freeze or crash unpredictably. In some cases, memory faults may only cause errors with particular combinations of software. For this reason, you should test the memory of a computer before you install Fedora for the first time, even if it has previously run other operating systems.
To boot your computer in memory testing mode, enter memtest86 at the boot: prompt. The first test starts immediately. By default, memtest86 carries out a total of ten tests.
To halt the tests and reboot your computer, enter Esc at any time.

A.6.2. Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode

You may boot a command-line Linux system from either a rescue disc or the first installation disc, without installing Fedora on the computer. This enables you to use the utilities and functions of a running Linux system to modify or repair systems that are already installed on your computer.
The rescue disc starts the rescue mode system by default. To load the rescue system with the first installation disc, enter:
 linux rescue
Specify the language, keyboard layout and network settings for the rescue system with the screens that follow. The final setup screen configures access to the existing system on your computer.
By default, rescue mode attaches an existing operating system to the rescue system under the directory /mnt/sysimage/.

Setting Up a PXE Server

Experience Required

This appendix is intended for users with previous Linux experience. If you are a new user, you may want to install using minimal boot media or the distribution DVD instead.
This section discusses how to set up a Pre-boot eXecution Environment (PXE) boot server for machines that cannot boot from CD, DVD, or USB media. PXE is a special extension of services provided by the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). It uses a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server to provide minimal boot files to a network client. To set up a PXE boot service on a separate Fedora server on the local network, follow this procedure:
  1. Install the tftp-server, dhcp, and syslinux packages:
    su -c 'yum install tftp-server dhcp syslinux'
    
  2. Edit the /etc/dhcpd.conf file to configure the DHCP server. The following example is a minimal configuration for a network that uses the following configuration:
    • 192.168.1.0/24 addressing
    • Dynamic addresses provided between 192.168.1.200 and 192.168.1.240
    • DHCP/PXE server at IP address 192.168.1.10
    • No other dynamic configuration provided
    allow booting; allow bootp; ddns-update-style interim; ignore client-updates; subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 { option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0; option broadcast-address 192.168.1.255; range dynamic-bootp 192.168.1.200 192.168.1.240; next-server 192.168.1.10; filename "pxelinux.0"; }
    
  3. As the root user, copy the PXE boot image and Fedora boot files to the TFTP server directory.
    su -
    cd /tftpboot
    cp /usr/lib/syslinux/pxelinux.0 .
    
  4. Copy the vmlinuz and initrd.img files from the pxeboot directory on distribution media or a Web mirror to the /tftpboot directory.
  5. Create a minimal /tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg file:
    DEFAULT pxeboot
    TIMEOUT 50
    LABEL pxeboot
          KERNEL vmlinuz
          APPEND initrd=initrd.img
    ONERROR LOCALBOOT 0
    
  6. Turn on the dhcpd, xinetd and tftp services:
    su -c '/sbin/service dhcpd start'
    su -c '/sbin/service xinetd start'
    su -c '/sbin/chkconfig tftp on'
    
Boot the client system and either use the required keys or configure its BIOS to boot from its network interface using PXE. At the boot prompt, hit Enter to boot the default Fedora installation image. If an error occurs, the system boots in its normal configuration, such as a local hard disk.

Other Technical Documentation

This document provides a reference for using the Fedora installation software, known as anaconda. To learn more about anaconda, visit the project Web page: http://www.fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda.
Both anaconda and Fedora systems use a common set of software components. For detailed information on key technologies, refer to the Web sites listed below:
Boot Loader
Fedora uses the GRUB boot loader. Refer to http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/ for more information.
Disk Partitioning
Fedora uses parted to partition disks. Refer to http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/ for more information.
Storage Management
Logical Volume Management (LVM) provides administrators with a range of facilities to manage storage. By default, the Fedora installation process formats drives as LVM volumes. Refer to http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO/ for more information.
Audio Support
The Linux kernel used by Fedora incorporates ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture). For more information about ALSA, refer to the project Web site: http://www.alsa-project.org/.
Graphics System
Both the installation system and Fedora use the Xorg suite to provide graphical capabilities. Components of Xorg manage the display, keyboard and mouse for the desktop environments that users interact with. Refer to http://www.x.org/ for more information.
Remote Displays
Fedora and anaconda include VNC (Virtual Network Computing) software to enable remote access to graphical displays. For more information about VNC, refer to the documentation on the RealVNC Web site: http://www.realvnc.com/documentation.html.
Command-line Interface
By default, Fedora uses the GNU bash shell to provide a command-line interface. The GNU Core Utilities complete the command-line environment. Refer to http://www.gnu.org/software/bash/bash.html for more information on bash. To learn more about the GNU Core Utilities, refer to http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/.
Remote System Access
Fedora incorporates the OpenSSH suite to provide remote access to the system. The SSH service enables a number of functions, which include access to the command-line from other systems, remote command execution, and network file transfers. During the installation process anaconda may use the scp feature of OpenSSH to transfer crash reports to remote systems. Refer to the OpenSSH Web site for more information: http://www.openssh.com/.
Access Control
SELinux provides Mandatory Access Control (MAC) capabilities that supplement the standard Linux security features. Refer to the SELinux FAQ for more information: http://docs.fedoraproject.org/selinux-faq/.
Firewall
The Linux kernel used by Fedora incorporates the netfilter framework to provide firewall features. The Netfilter project website provides documentation for both netfilter, and the iptables administration facilities: http://netfilter.org/documentation/index.html.
Software Installation
Fedora uses yum to manage the RPM packages that make up the system. Refer to http://docs.fedoraproject.org/yum/ for more information.
Virtualization
Virtualization provides the capability to simultaneously run multiple operating systems on the same computer. Fedora also includes tools to install and manage the secondary systems on a Fedora host. You may select virtualization support during the installation process, or at any time thereafter. Refer to http://www.fedoraproject.org/wiki/Tools/Virtualization for more information.

Index

Symbols

/root directory, General Information on Partitions

A

ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture), Other Technical Documentation
Anaconda, Other Technical Documentation
architecture, Which Architecture Is My Computer?
determining, Which Architecture Is My Computer?
array (see RAID)

B

BIOS (Basic Input/Output System), How Do I Start the Installation Program?
BitTorrent, From BitTorrent
seeding, From BitTorrent
boot loader, Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration
(see also GRUB)
upgrading, Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration

C

CD/DVD media
booting, How Do I Start the Installation Program?
downloading, How Do I Download Installation Files?
(see also ISO images)

D

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), Network Configuration, Network Devices
Disk Druid, Disk Druid
DNS (Domain Name Service), Miscellaneous Settings
domain name, Hostname
driver disks, Adding Hardware Support with Driver Disks

E

ext2 (see file systems)
ext3 (see file system) (see file systems)

F

FDP (see Fedora Documentation Project)
Fedora Documentation Project, Feedback
feedback
contact information for this manual, We Need Feedback!
file system, Partition Types
ext3 , Partition Types
NTFS , Disk Druid
vfat , Disk Druid
file systems
ext2, Installation from a Hard Drive
ext3, Installation from a Hard Drive
vfat, Installation from a Hard Drive
firewall
configuring, Firewall
documentation, Other Technical Documentation

G

gateway, Miscellaneous Settings
GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) (see UTC)
GRUB
configuring, Boot Loader
(see also boot loader)
documentation, Other Technical Documentation

H

hostname, Hostname

L

LVM, Disk Druid
documentation, Other Technical Documentation
logical volume, Understanding LVM
physical volume, Understanding LVM
understanding, Understanding LVM
volume group, Understanding LVM

N

NFS (Network File System)
install from, Installation TCP/IP Configuration
NTFS (see file system)
NTFS partitions
resizing, Prepare for Installation
NTP (Network Time Protocol), Time Zone Selection, Date and Time

O

OpenSSH, Other Technical Documentation
(see also SSH)
OSI (Open Source Initiative), License Agreement

P

package groups, Customizing the Software Selection
partition
/home , Disk Druid
adding, Disk Druid
deleting, Disk Druid
editing, Disk Druid
illegal, Disk Druid
root, General Information on Partitions, Disk Druid
type, Partition Types
(see also file system)
PXE (Pre-boot eXecution Environment), Booting from the Network using PXE

R

RAID, Disk Druid
hardware, Hardware RAID
Linux software, Disk Druid
rescue discs, Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode
rescue mode, Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode
root account, Set the Root Password
router (see gateway)

S

scp, Other Technical Documentation
(see also SSH)
SELinux
configuring, SELinux
documentation, Other Technical Documentation
serial console, Configuring the Interface
Setup Agent, First Boot
Software Updater, Updating Your System
SSH (Secure SHell)
documentation, Other Technical Documentation
firewall configuration, Firewall
swap partitions, General Information on Partitions
syslog, Logging to a Remote System During the Installation

V

vfat (see file system) (see file systems)
Virtualization
documentation, Other Technical Documentation
VNC (Virtual Network Computing), Enabling Remote Access to the Installation System
documentation, Other Technical Documentation
enabling, Enabling Remote Access with VNC
installing client, Enabling Remote Access to the Installation System
listening mode, Connecting the Installation System to a VNC Listener