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Fedora 9

Release Notes


Fedora Documentation Project

Fedora Documentation Project

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1. Welcome to Fedora
2. Release Highlights
2.1. Fedora Tour
2.2. New in Fedora
2.3. Road Map
3. Feedback
3.1. Providing Feedback on Fedora Software
3.2. Providing Feedback on Release Notes
4. Installation Notes
4.1. Changes in Anaconda
4.2. Installation Related Issues
4.3. Upgrade Related Issues
4.4. Kickstart HTTP Issue
5. Architecture Specific Notes
5.1. RPM multiarch support on 64-bit platforms (x86_64, ppc64)
5.2. PPC Specifics for Fedora
5.3. x86 Specifics for Fedora
5.4. x86_64 Specifics for Fedora
6. Fedora Live Images
6.1. Available Images
6.2. Usage Information
6.3. Text Mode Installation
6.4. Direct Installation
7. Package Notes
7.1. Sound Card Utility
7.2. Perl
7.3. Yum Changes
7.4. pam_mount
7.5. TeXLive
7.6. LTSP
7.7. Utility Packages
7.8. pilot-link and HAL/PolicyKit Interaction
7.9. Legal Information
8. Linux Kernel
8.1. Version
8.2. Changelog
8.3. Kernel Flavors
8.4. Preparing for Kernel Development
8.5. Reporting Bugs
9. Fedora Desktop
9.1. GNOME
9.2. KDE
9.3. PackageKit
9.4. Bluetooth
9.5. XULRunner
9.6. Web Browsers
9.7. Mail Clients
9.8. Disabling PC Speaker
9.9. International Clock Applet
9.10. Dictionaries Consolidated
9.11. Compiz
9.12. vmmouse Driver
10. File Systems
10.1. Ext4 Preview
11. Web Servers
11.1. PostgreSQL DBD Driver
11.2. TurboGears Applications
11.3. Drupal
11.4. Squid
12. Mail Servers
12.1. Sendmail
13. Development
13.1. Tools
14. Security
14.1. Security Enhancements
14.2. Support for SHA-256 and SHA-512 passwords
14.3. FORTIFY_SOURCE extended to cover more functions
14.4. SELinux Enhancements
14.5. Default Firewall Behavior
14.6. General Information
14.7. SELinux
14.8. Free IPA
15. Java
15.1. OpenJDK
15.2. OpenJDK Replaces IcedTea
15.3. Handling Java Applets
15.4. Handling Web Start Applications
15.5. Fedora and JPackage
16. System Services
16.1. Upstart
16.2. NetworkManager
16.3. Autofs
17. Multimedia
17.1. Multimedia Players
17.2. Ogg and Xiph.Org Foundation Formats
17.3. MP3, DVD, and Other Excluded Multimedia Formats
17.4. CD and DVD Authoring and Burning
17.5. Screencasts
17.6. Extended Support through Plugins
18. Games and Entertainment
19. Virtualization
19.1. Kernel Integration Improvements
19.2. Improved Storage Management
19.3. PolicyKit Integration
19.4. Improved Remote Authentication
19.5. Other Improvements
20. X Window System (Graphics)
20.1. Faster X Start-up and Shutdown
20.2. X Configuration Changes
20.3. Third Party Video Drivers
21. Database Servers
21.1. MySQL
21.2. PostgreSQL
22. Internationalization (i18n)
22.1. Language Coverage
22.2. Fonts
22.3. Input Methods
23. Backwards Compatibility
23.1. Compiler Compatibility
23.2. KDE 3 Development Platform / Libraries
24. Package Changes
25. Fedora Project
26. Colophon
26.1. Contributors
26.2. Production Methods

1. Welcome to Fedora

The Fedora Project is a Red Hat sponsored and community supported open source project. Its goal is the rapid progress of free and open source software and content. The Fedora Project makes use of public forums, open processes, rapid innovation, meritocracy, and transparency in pursuit of the best operating system and platform that free and open source software can provide.

Latest Release Notes on the Web

These release notes may be updated. To view the latest release notes for Fedora, visit:

Older Release Notes on the Web

If you are migrating from a release of Fedora older than the immediately previous one, you should refer to older Release Notes for additional information. You can find older Release Notes at
You can help the Fedora Project community continue to improve Fedora if you file bug reports and enhancement requests. Refer to for more information about bugs. Thank you for your participation.
To find out more general information about Fedora, refer to the following Web pages:

Document Links

Many links may not work properly from within the installation environment, due to resource constraints. The release notes are also available post-installation as part of the desktop Web browser's default home page. If you are connected to the internet, use these links to find other helpful information about Fedora and the community that creates and supports it.

2. Release Highlights

Latest Release Notes on the Web

These release notes may be updated. To view the latest release notes for Fedora, visit:

2.1. Fedora Tour

You can find a tour filled with pictures and videos of this exciting new release at

2.1.1. Release Summary

For a less technical user friendly summary of the important changes in this release, refer to:

2.2. New in Fedora

This release includes significant new versions of many key components and technologies. The following sections provide a brief overview of major changes from the last release of Fedora.

2.2.1. Spins

Fedora includes several different spins, which are variations of Fedora built from a specific set of software packages. Each spin has a combination of software to meet the requirements of a specific kind of end user. In addition to a very small boot.iso image for network installation, users have the following spin choices:
  • A regular Fedora image for desktops, workstations, and server users. This spin provides a good upgrade path and similar environment for users of previous releases of Fedora.
  • One of several Live images that can be run from a disc or USB flash device, and can be installed to hard disk as desired. Refer to the "Live" section for more information about the Live images.
More custom spins are available at These Live images can be used on USB media via the livecd-iso-to-disk utility available in the livecd-tools package.

2.2.2. Jigdo

Fedora releases are also available via Jigdo. This distribution method can improve the speed of obtaining the installation ISO images. Instead of waiting for torrent downloads to complete, Jigdo seeks the fastest mirrors it can find via the Fedora Project Mirror Manager infrastructure, and downloads the bits it needs from these mirrors. To optimize seeking these bits, you can tell Jigdo to scan a DVD or CD you already have, and cut down on redundant downloads. This feature becomes particularly useful if you:
  1. Download all the test releases and then get the final release, in which case you have 90% of the data already with each subsequent download.
  2. Download both the DVD and the CD set, in which case the DVD holds 95% of the data needed for the CD sets.
  3. Download any combination of the above.

2.2.3. Upgrading using PreUpgrade

PreUpgrade is an application users run on an existing Fedora 7 or 8 installation, that resolves and downloads packages required to upgrade Fedora. While PreUpgrade downloads the necessary packages, users are free to continue using their systems.
To use PreUpgrade to upgrade Fedora 8 to Fedora 9:
  1. Back up all important data before upgrading.
  2. Run the yum update command as root to make sure all packages are updated to their latest versions.
  3. Run the yum install preupgrade command as root to install PreUpgrade.
  4. Run the preupgrade command as root to start the PreUpgrade application.
  5. Select Fedora 9 (Sulphur) on the Choose desired release screen, and click the Apply button.
  6. When all of the packages have downloaded, reboot your system to start the Fedora 9 installer.
For further information, refer to the PreUpgrade Wiki:

2.2.4. Features

  • This release features GNOME 2.22. GNOME now includes a webcam photo and video creation utility called Cheese, improved network filesystem support, a new international clock applet, Google Calendar support and custom email labels in Evolution, a new Remote Desktop Viewer, improved accessibility features, and PolicyKit integration.
  • KDE 4.0.3 is available in the KDE Live image as well as the regular DVD.
  • Xfce 4.4.2 is available as part of this release.
  • NetworkManager 0.7 provides improved mobile broadband support, including GSM and CDMA devices, and now supports multiple devices and ad-hoc networking for sharing connections. It is now enabled by default on installations from DVD, CD, the network, and Live images.
  • The Fedora installer, Anaconda, now supports partition resizing for ext2/3, NTFS filesystems, creating and installing to encrypted file systems, improved Rescue Mode with FirstAidKit, independent locations for the second stage installer and the software packages. A redesigned, larger netboot.iso image now features a second stage installer partly for this reason.
  • Live USB images now support persistence, so your data and setting changes will be preserved even after rebooting.
  • PackageKit, a new set of graphical and console tools, with a framework for cross-distribution software management, has replaced Pirut in this release of Fedora. The PackageKit graphical updater is available instead of Pup. Behind PackageKit, the performance of yum has been significantly improved.
  • FreeIPA makes managing auditing, identity and policy processes easier by providing web-based and command line provisioning, and administration tools to ease system administration. FreeIPA combines the power of the Fedora Directory Server with FreeRADIUS, MIT Kerberos, NTP and DNS to provide an easy, out of the box solution.
  • Ext4, the next version of the mature and stable ext3 filesystem is available as a option in this release. Ext4 features better performance, higher storage capacity and several other new features.
  • This release of Fedora uses Upstart, an event-based replacement for the /sbin/init daemon.
  • Firefox 3 (beta 5) brings a number of major improvements including a native look and feel, desktop integration, the new Places replacement for bookmarks, and a re-worked address bar.
  • The completely free and open source Java environment OpenJDK 6 is installed by default. IcedTea 7, derived from OpenJDK 1.7, is no longer the default. IcedTea includes a browser plug-in based on GCJ, and is available for both x86 and x86_64 architectures. GCJ is still the default on PPC architecture.
  • 2.4, with many new features, is available as part of Fedora 9.
  • Fedora now includes Perl 5.10.0, which features a smaller memory footprint and other improvements.
  • Fedora now includes TeXLive to replace the older, unmaintained TeX distribution.
  • Fedora 9 features a 2.6.25 based kernel.
  • Kernel crashes can be more automatically reported to and diagnosed in a friendly way via the kerneloops package installed by default. Crash signatures are commonly referred to as oopses in Linux.
  • Work on the start-up and shutdown in X has yielded noticeable improvements.

2.3. Road Map

The proposed plans for the next release of Fedora are available at

3. Feedback

Thank you for taking the time to provide your comments, suggestions, and bug reports to the Fedora community. By doing so, you help improve the state of Fedora, Linux, and free software worldwide.

3.1. Providing Feedback on Fedora Software

To provide feedback on Fedora software or other system elements, please refer to A list of commonly reported bugs and known issues for this release is available from

3.2. Providing Feedback on Release Notes

Feedback for Release Notes Only

This section concerns feedback on the release notes themselves.
If you feel these release notes could be improved in any way, you can provide your feedback directly to the beat writers. Here are several ways to do so, in order of preference:
  1. If you have a Fedora account, edit content directly at
  2. Fill out a bug request using this template: - This link is ONLY for feedback on the release notes themselves. Refer to the admonition above for details.

4. Installation Notes

Latest Release Notes on the Web

These release notes may be updated. To view the latest release notes for Fedora, visit:

Fedora Installation Guide

To learn how to install Fedora, refer to

Installation issues not covered in these release notes

If you encounter a problem or have a question during installation that is not covered in these relese notes, refer to and
Anaconda is the name of the Fedora installer. This section outlines issues related to Anaconda and installing Fedora 9.

Downloading Large Files

If you intend to download the Fedora DVD ISO image, keep in mind that not all file downloading tools can accommodate files larger than 2 GiB in size. Tools without this limitation include wget 1.9.1-16 and above, curl, and ncftpget. BitTorrent is another method for downloading large files. For information about obtaining and using the torrent file, refer to
Anaconda tests the integrity of installation media by default. This function works with the CD, DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. The Fedora Project recommends that you test all installation media before starting the installation process and before reporting any installation-related bugs. Many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned CDs or DVDs.
The mediacheck function is highly sensitive, and may report some usable discs as faulty. This result is often caused by disc writing software that does not include padding when creating discs from ISO files. To use this test, at boot time hit any key to enter the menu. Then press the Tab key, add the option mediacheck to the parameter list, and press Enter.
After you complete the mediacheck function successfully, reboot to return the system to its normal state. On many systems, this results in a faster installation process from the disc. You may skip the mediacheck option when rebooting.

BitTorrent Automatically Verifies File Integrity

If you use BitTorrent, any files you download are automatically validated. If your file completes downloading, you do not need to check it. Once you burn your CD or DVD, however, you should still use mediacheck to test the integrity of the media.
To perform memory testing before you install Fedora, press any key to enter the boot menu, then select Memory Test. This option runs the Memtest86 stand alone memory testing software in place of Anaconda. Memtest86 memory testing continues until you press the Esc key.

Memtest86 Availability

You must boot from Installation Disc 1, the DVD, or a rescue CD in order to use this feature.
Fedora 9 supports graphical FTP and HTTP installations. However, the installer image must either fit in RAM or appear on local storage, such as Installation Disc 1. Therefore, only systems with more than 192MiB of RAM, or which boot from Installation Disc 1, can use the graphical installer. Systems with 192MiB RAM or less fall back to using the text-based installer automatically. If you prefer to use the text-based installer, type linux text at the boot: prompt.

4.1. Changes in Anaconda

  • Built-in support for resizing ext2, ext3, and ntfs partitions.
  • Support for installation to encrypted block devices, including the root filesystem.
  • Consolidated network booting ISO image, replacing old boot.iso, diskboot.img, and rescuecd.iso.
  • Second stage installer location now independent of software package location.
  • Native installation to x86 and x86_64 machines using EFI and booting via grub.
  • Hardware probing and detection now based on HAL and udev.
  • Support for persistence in Live images on USB flash media.

4.4. Kickstart HTTP Issue

When using a Kickstart configuration file via HTTP, kickstart file retrieval may fail with an error that indicates the file could not be retrieved. Click the OK button several times without making modifications to override this error successfully. As a workaround, use one of the other supported methods to retrieve Kickstart configurations.

5. Architecture Specific Notes

Latest Release Notes on the Web

These release notes may be updated. To view the latest release notes for Fedora, visit:
This section provides notes that are specific to the supported hardware architectures of Fedora.

5.1. RPM multiarch support on 64-bit platforms (x86_64, ppc64)

RPM supports parallel installation of multiple architectures of the same package. A default package listing such as rpm -qa might appear to include duplicate packages, since the architecture is not displayed. Instead, use the repoquery command, part of the yum-utils package, which displays architecture by default. To install yum-utils , run the following command:
su -c "yum install yum-utils"
To list all packages with their architecture using rpm, run the following command:
rpm -qa --queryformat "%{name}-%{version}-%{release}.%{arch}\n"
You can add this to /etc/rpm/macros (for a system wide setting) or ~/.rpmmacros (for a per-user setting). It changes the default query to list the architecture:
%_query_all_fmt      %%{name}-%%{version}-%%{release}.%%{arch}

5.2. PPC Specifics for Fedora

This section covers specific information about Fedora and the PPC hardware platform.

5.2.1. Hardware Requirements for PPC Processor and memory
  • Minimum CPU: PowerPC G3 / POWER3.
  • Fedora 9 supports only the "New World" generation of Apple Power Macintosh, shipped from circa 1999 onward. Although "Old World" machines should work, they require a special bootloader which is not included in the Fedora distribution.
  • Fedora 9 supports IBM RS/6000, pSeries, iSeries, and Cell Broadband Engine machines.
  • Fedora 9 also supports the Sony PlayStation 3 and Genesi Pegasos II and Efika.
  • Fedora 9 includes new hardware support for the P.A. Semiconductor 'Electra' machines.
  • Recommended for text-mode: 233 MHz G3 or better, 128MiB RAM.
  • Recommended for graphical: 400 MHz G3 or better, 256MiB RAM. Hard disk space
The complete packages can occupy over 9 GB of disk space. Final size is entirely determined by the installing spin and the packages selected during installation. Additional disk space is required during installation to support the installation environment. This additional disk space corresponds to the size of /Fedora/base/stage2.img (on Installation Disc 1) plus the size of the files in /var/lib/rpm on the installed system.
In practical terms, additional space requirements may range from as little as 90 MiB for a minimal installation to as much as an additional 175 MiB for a larger installation.
Additional space is also required for any user data, and at least 5% free space should be maintained for proper system operation.

5.2.2. 4 KiB Pages on 64-bit machines

After a brief experiment with 64KiB pages in Fedora Core 6, the PowerPC64 kernel has now been switched back to 4KiB pages. The installer should reformat any swap partitions automatically during an upgrade.

5.2.3. The Apple keyboard

The Option key on Apple systems is equivalent to the Alt key on the PC. Where documentation and the installer refer to the Alt key, use the Option key. For some key combinations you may need to use the Option key in conjunction with the Fn key, such as Option+Fn+F3 to switch to virtual terminal tty3.

5.2.4. PPC installation notes

Fedora Installation Disc 1 is bootable on supported hardware. In addition, a bootable CD image appears in the images/ directory of this disc. These images behave differently according to your system hardware:
  • On most machines, the bootloader automatically boots the appropriate 32-bit or 64-bit installer from the install disc.
  • 64-bit IBM pSeries (POWER4/POWER5), current iSeries models
    After using OpenFirmware to boot the CD, the bootloader, yaboot, automatically boots the 64-bit installer.
  • IBM "Legacy" iSeries (POWER4)
    So-called "Legacy" iSeries models, which do not use OpenFirmware, require use of the boot image located in the images/iSeries directory of the installation tree.
  • 32-bit CHRP (IBM RS/6000 and others)
    After using OpenFirmware to boot the CD, select the linux32 boot image at the boot: prompt to start the 32-bit installer. Otherwise, the 64-bit installer starts and fails.
  • Genesi Pegasos II / Efika 5200B
    The Fedora kernel supports both Pegasos and Efika without the need to use the "Device Tree Supplement" from However, the lack of full support for ISO9660 in the firmware means that booting via yaboot from the CD is not possible. Boot the 'netboot' image instead, either from the CD or over the network. Because of the size of the image, you must set the firmware's load-base variable to load files at a high address such as 32MiB instead of the default 4MiB:
    setenv load-base 0x2000000
    At the OpenFirmware prompt, enter the following command to boot the Efika update, if necessary, or the netboot image from the CD:
    boot cd: /images/netboot/ppc32.img
    Or from the network:
    boot eth ppc32.img
    You must also manually configure OpenFirmware to make the installed Fedora system bootable. To do this, set the boot-device and boot-file environment variables appropriately, to load yaboot from the /boot partition. For example, a default installation might require the following:
    setenv boot-device hd:0 
    setenv boot-file /yaboot/yaboot
    setenv auto-boot? true
  • PA Semi Electra
    The Electra firmware does not yet support yaboot; to install on Electra, you can boot the ppc64.img netboot image. After the installation, you will need to manually configure the firmware to load the installed kernel and initrd from the /boot partition. Refer to the firmware documentation for further details.
  • Sony PlayStation 3
    For installation on PlayStation 3, first update to firmware 1.60 or later. The "Other OS" boot loader must be installed into the flash, following the instructions at A suitable boot loader image can be found on Sony's "ADDON" CD, available from
    Once the boot loader is installed, the PlayStation 3 should be able to boot from the Fedora install media. Please note that network installation works best with NFS, since that takes less memory than FTP or HTTP methods. Using the text option also reduces the amount of memory taken by the installer.
    For more information on Fedora and the PlayStation3 or Fedora on PowerPC in general, join the Fedora-PPC mailing list or the #fedora-ppc channel on FreeNode.
  • Network booting
    Combined images containing the installer kernel and ramdisk are located in the images/netboot/ directory of the installation tree. They are intended for network booting with TFTP, but can be used in many ways.
    The yaboot loader supports TFTP booting for IBM pSeries and Apple Macintosh. The Fedora Project encourages the use of yaboot over the netboot images.

5.2.5. PPC Specific Packages

The ppc64-utils package has been split out into individual packages reflecting upstream packaging (ps3pf-utils, powerpc-utils, powerpc-utils-papr). Although the mkzimage command is no longer supplied, you can use the wrapper script from the kernel-bootwrapper package:
wrapper -i initrd-${KERN_VERSION}.img -o zImage-${KERN_VERSION}.img vmlinuz-${KERN_VERSION}

5.3. x86 Specifics for Fedora

This section covers specific information about Fedora and the x86 hardware platform.

5.3.1. Hardware requirements for x86

In order to use specific features of Fedora 9 during or after installation, you may need to know details of other hardware components such as video and network cards. Processor and memory
The following CPU specifications are stated in terms of Intel processors. Other processors, such as those from AMD, Cyrix, and VIA that are compatible with and equivalent to the following Intel processors, may also be used with Fedora.
Fedora 9 requires an Intel Pentium or better processor, and is optimized for Pentium 4 and later processors.
  • Recommended for text-mode: 200 MHz Pentium-class or better.
  • Recommended for graphical: 400 MHz Pentium II or better.
  • Minimum RAM for text-mode: 128MiB.
  • Minimum RAM for graphical: 192MiB.
  • Recommended RAM for graphical: 256MiB. Hard disk space
The complete packages can occupy over 9 GB of disk space. Final size is entirely determined by the installing spin and the packages selected during installation. Additional disk space is required during installation to support the installation environment. This additional disk space corresponds to the size of /Fedora/base/stage2.img (on Installation Disc 1) plus the size of the files in /var/lib/rpm on the installed system.
In practical terms, additional space requirements may range from as little as 90 MiB for a minimal installation to as much as an additional 175 MiB for a larger installation.
Additional space is also required for any user data, and at least 5% free space should be maintained for proper system operation.

5.4. x86_64 Specifics for Fedora

This section covers specific information about Fedora and the x86_64 hardware platform.

5.4.1. Hardware requirements for x86_64

In order to use specific features of Fedora 9 during or after installation, you may need to know details of other hardware components such as video and network cards. Memory requirements for x86_64
  • Minimum RAM for text-mode: 256MiB.
  • Minimum RAM for graphical: 384MiB.
  • Recommended RAM for graphical: 512MiB. Hard disk space requirements for x86_64
The complete packages can occupy over 9 GB of disk space. Final size is entirely determined by the installing spin and the packages selected during installation. Additional disk space is required during installation to support the installation environment. This additional disk space corresponds to the size of /Fedora/base/stage2.img (on Installation Disc 1) plus the size of the files in /var/lib/rpm on the installed system.
In practical terms, additional space requirements may range from as little as 90 MiB for a minimal installation to as much as an additional 175 MiB for a larger installation.
Additional space is also required for any user data, and at least 5% free space should be maintained for proper system operation.

6. Fedora Live Images

Latest Release Notes on the Web

These release notes may be updated. To view the latest release notes for Fedora, visit:
The Fedora release includes several live ISO images in addition to the traditional installation images. These ISO images are bootable, and you can burn them to media and use them to try out Fedora. They also include a feature that allows you to install the Live image content to your hard drive for persistence and higher performance.

6.1. Available Images

For a complete list of current spins available, and instructions for using them, refer to:

6.2. Usage Information

To boot from the Live image, insert it into your computer and restart. To log in and use the desktop environment, enter the username fedora. Hit Enter at the password prompt, since there is no password on this account. The Live images do not automatically login so users can select a preferred language. After logging in, if you wish to install the contents of the live image to your hard drive, click on the Install to Hard Drive icon on the desktop.

6.3. Text Mode Installation

You can do a text mode installation of the Live images using the liveinst command in the console.

6.4. Direct Installation

You can add liveinst or textinst as a boot loader option to perform a direct installation without booting up the live CD/DVD.

6.4.1. USB Booting

Another way to use these Live images is to put them on a USB stick. To do this, install the livecd-tools package from the development repository. Then, run the livecd-iso-to-disk script:
/usr/bin/livecd-iso-to-disk /path/to/live.iso /dev/sdb1
Replace /dev/sdb1 with the partition where you want to put the image.
This is not a destructive process; any data you currently have on your USB stick is preserved.

6.4.2. Live USB Persistence

Support for persistent changes with a Live image exists for Fedora 9. The primary use case is booting from a Live image on a USB flash drive and storing changes to that same device. To do this, download the Live image and then run the following command:
livecd-iso-to-disk --overlay-size-mb 512 /path/to/live.iso /dev/sdb1
Replace /dev/sdb1 with the partition where you want to put the image.
Replace 512 with the desired size in megabytes of the persistent data, or overlay. The livecd-iso-to-disk shell script is stored in the LiveOS directory at the top level of the CD image. The USB media must have sufficient free space for the Live image, plus the overlay, plus any other data to be stored on the media.

6.4.3. Tool Changes

Work has continued to better integrate the Live images with the rest of the system, and improve the tools used for building them. The livecd-creator utility now provides an API for building alternative front-ends, as well as tools for other types of images.

6.4.4. Differences From a Regular Fedora Install

The following items are different from a normal Fedora install with the live images.
  • Live images provide a subset of packages available in the regular DVD image. Both connect to the same repository that has all the packages.
  • SSH is disabled by default. SSH is disabled because the default username in the Live images does not have any password. However, installation to hard disk prompts for creating a new username and password.
  • Live image installations do not allow any package selection or upgrade capability since they copy the entire file system from media or USB disks, to the hard disk. After the installation is complete, and your system has been rebooted, you can add and remove packages as desired with the Add/Remove Packages tool, yum, or the other software management tools.
  • Live images do not work on i586 architecture.

7. Package Notes

Latest Release Notes on the Web

These release notes may be updated. To view the latest release notes for Fedora, visit:
The following sections contain information regarding software packages that have undergone significant changes for Fedora 9. For easier access, they are generally organized using the same groups that are shown in the installation system.

7.1. Sound Card Utility

The system-config-soundcard utility has been removed, due to numerous legacy design and implementation issues. Modern technologies, including udev and the HAL, have made certain sound cards work out of the box. Any sound card not working out of the box should be reported as a bug. Preferences can still be fine-tuned within the desktop environment, using, among others, the PulseAudio tools.

7.2. Perl

Fedora 9 now includes Perl 5.10.0, the first "major" release update in perl5 in some time. The Perl interpreter itself is faster with a smaller memory footprint, and has several UTF-8 and threading improvements. The Perl installation is now relocatable, a blessing for systems administrators and operating system packagers. Perl 5.10.0 also adds a new smart match operator, a switch statement, named captures, state variables, and better error messages.
For more information, refer to:

7.3. Yum Changes

The installonlyn plugin functionality has been folded into the core yum package. The installonlypkgs and installonly_limit options are used by default to limit the system to retain only two kernel packages. You can adjust the package set or the number of packages, or disable the option entirely to match your preferences. More details are available in the man page for yum.conf.
The yum command now retries when it detects a lock. This function is useful if a daemon is checking for updates, or if you are running yum and one of its graphical frontends simultaneously.
The yum command now understands a cost parameter in its configuration file, which is the relative cost of accessing a software repository. It is useful for weighing one software repository's packages as greater or less than any other. The cost parameter defaults to 1000, with lower costs given priority.
In Fedora 9 Rawhide, the /etc/yum.repos.d/fedora-development.repo file has been changed to /etc/yum.repos.d/fedora-rawhide.repo. References to development in fedora-rawhide.repo have been changed to rawhide. Due to the way that RPM deals with configuration files, the existing /etc/yum.repos.d/fedora-development.repo file is saved as /etc/yum.repos.d/fedora-development.repo.rpmsave if it was previous modified. Users of the development repository may need to update scripts custom configuration files to use the new name.

7.4. pam_mount

The pam_mount facility now uses a configuration file written in XML. The /etc/security/pam_mount.conf file will be converted to /etc/security/pam_mount.conf.xml during update with /usr/bin/, which removes all comments. Any per-user configuration files must be converted manually, with the conversion script if desired. A sample pam_mount.conf.xml file with detailed comments about the available options appears at /usr/share/doc/pam_mount-*/pam_mount.conf.xml.

7.5. TeXLive

TeXLive is a replacement for the old, unmaintained TeX package. It offers new style packages and fixes many security problems with the old distribution.

7.6. LTSP

The Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP) has been included directly into Fedora 9. Work is ongoing. For the latest news and documentation, refer to:

7.7. Utility Packages

The nautilus-open-terminal package now uses a GConf key to control its behavior when launched by right-clicking the Desktop. To enable its previous behavior, which opens the resulting terminal in the user's home directory, use this command:
gconftool-2 -s /apps/nautilus-open-terminal/desktop_opens_home_dir --type=bool true

The i810switch package has been removed. This functionality is now available through the xrandr command in the xorg-x11-server-utils package.
The evolution-exchange package replaces evolution-connector , and provides a capability under the old name.
The system-config-firewall and system-config-selinux packages replace system-config-security-level . The system-config-selinux package is part of the policycoreutils-gui package.

8. Linux Kernel

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These release notes may be updated. To view the latest release notes for Fedora, visit:
This section covers changes and important information regarding the 2.6.25 based kernel in Fedora 9. The 2.6.25 kernel includes:
  • Tickless support for x86 64-bit systems (32-bit was added previously), which greatly improves power management.
  • Some elements of the realtime kernel project.
  • The kernel has a new version naming scheme to more closely match the upstream version naming scheme.
  • The kernel spec file is now named kernel.spec rather than kernel-2.6.spec.
  • The kernel spec file has new macros that ease the kernel building process. Refer to for further information.
  • The kernel in Fedora 9 no longer loads modules by default for ISA sound cards. Load the module by hand using the command modprobe module-name, or put an entry in /etc/modprobe.conf. For example, for the Creative SoundBlaster AWE64, add the following entry:
    install snd-sbawe
  • The Fedora kernel offers paravirt_ops support in domU, as part of the kernel team's efforts to reduce the work required to produce current Xen kernels.
  • Xen fully virtualized guests can directly boot a kernel and initrd image and pass kernel boot args. For more details refer to

8.1. Version

Fedora may include additional patches to the kernel for improvements, bug fixes, or additional features. For this reason, the Fedora kernel may not be line-for-line equivalent to the so-called vanilla kernel from the web site:
To obtain a list of these patches, download the source RPM package and run the following command against it:
rpm -qpl kernel-<version>.src.rpm

8.2. Changelog

To retrieve a log of changes to the package, run the following command:
rpm -q --changelog kernel-<version>

If you need a user friendly version of the changelog, refer to A short and full diff of the kernel is available from The Fedora version kernel is based on the Linus tree.
Customizations made for the Fedora version are available from

8.3. Kernel Flavors

Fedora 9 includes the following kernel builds:
  • Native kernel, for use in most systems. Configured sources are available in the kernel-devel package.
  • The kernel-PAE, for use in 32-bit x86 systems with more than 4GB of RAM, or with CPUs that have an NX (No eXecute) feature. This kernel support both uniprocessor and multi-processor systems. Configured sources are available in the kernel-PAE-devel package.
  • Virtualization kernel for use with the Xen emulator package. Configured sources are available in the kernel-xen-devel package.
You may install kernel headers for all kernel flavors at the same time. The files are installed in the /usr/src/kernels/version[-PAE|-xen|-kdump]-arch/ tree. Use the following command:
su -c "yum install kernel{,-PAE,-xen,-kdump}-devel"

Select one or more of these flavors, separated by commas and no spaces, as appropriate. Enter the root password when prompted.

x86 Kernel Includes Kdump

Both the x86_64 and the i686 kernels are now relocatable, so they no longer require a separate kernel for kdump capability. PPC64 still requires a separate kdump kernel.

Default Kernel Provides SMP

There is no separate SMP kernel available for Fedora on i386, x86_64, and ppc64. Multiprocessor support is provided by the native kernel.

PowerPC Kernel Support

There is no support for Xen or kdump for the PowerPC architecture in Fedora. 32-bit PowerPC does still have a separate SMP kernel.

8.4. Preparing for Kernel Development

Fedora 9 does not include the kernel-source package provided by older versions since only the kernel-devel package is required now to build external modules. Configured sources are available, as described in Section 8.3, “Kernel Flavors”.

Custom Kernel Building

For information on kernel development and working with custom kernels, refer to

8.5. Reporting Bugs

Refer to for information on reporting bugs in the Linux kernel. You may also use for reporting bugs that are specific to Fedora.

9. Fedora Desktop

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These release notes may be updated. To view the latest release notes for Fedora, visit:
This section details changes that affect Fedora graphical desktop users.

9.1. GNOME

This release features GNOME 2.22.
The GNOME splash screen has been disabled upstream intentionally. To enable it, use gconf-editor or the following command:
gconftool-2 --set /apps/gnome-session/options/show_splash_screen --type bool true

The lock screen dialog theme is not connected to the selected screensaver in this release. To enable it, use gconf-editor or the following command:
gconftool-2 --set  --type string /apps/gnome-screensaver/lock_dialog_theme  "system"

Blinking cursors are enabled by default in this release, and are centrally managed via a gconf setting. To turn it off, run the following command:
gconftool-2 --type bool --set /desktop/gnome/interface/cursor_blink false

9.1.1. Gvfs

GNOME 2.22 features the new Gvfs, a userspace virtual file-system with back-ends for sftp, ftp, dav, smb, obexftp, and others. The Gvfs system is the replacement/successor of gnome-vfs.
Gvfs consists of two parts:
  • GIO, which is a new shared library that is part of GLib and provides the API for gvfs
  • Gvfs itself, a package that contains back-ends for the various file system types and protocols
The Gvfs system runs a single master daemon, gvfsd, that keeps track of the current gvfs mounts. Most mounts are run in a separate daemon process. Clients talk to the mounts with a combination of DBus calls (on the session bus and using peer-to-peer DBus) and a custom protocol for file contents.
A few file-system types previously supported by gnome-vfs may not be yet supported by gvfs. Work continues to provide completed solutions for all these types.

9.1.2. GNOME Display Manager

The GNOME Display Manager (gdm) has been updated to the latest upstream code, which is a complete rewrite driven by Fedora developers.
PolicyKit can be used to control shutdown and reboot. The configuration tool gdmsetup is currently missing, and is set to be replaced. For configuration changes, refer to the following:
New features available on the login screen include:
  • power management and monitoring on the login screen, so the laptop hibernates or shuts down when the battery gets low
  • smarter user list
  • common default background between the login window and the desktop session, with no intermediate flicker
For more information on this feature:
Other notes:
  • ~/.Xclients and ~/.xsession are no longer read automatically at login time. If you use either of these files, install the xorg-x11-xinit-session package.
  • Due to a bug introduced at the end of the development cycle (bug 445631), users will be unable to select their language the first time the login screen appears. Users should log in once, and then logout again to get language selection. Unfortunately, this bug also effects the LiveCD.
  • The shipped version of GDM does not support old style theme formats, and is considerably plainer than the version shipped in Fedora 8. A priority for Fedora 10 will be greeter aesthetics.

9.2. KDE

This release features KDE 4.0.3. As the kdepim and kdevelop packages are not part of KDE 4.0 and kdewebdev is only partially available (no Quanta) in KDE 4.0, the KDE 3.5.9 versions of those packages are shipped.
KDE 4.0 features upgrades to core components such as the port to Qt 4. It also introduces a number of brand new frameworks such as the Phonon, a multimedia API; Solid, a hardware integration framework; Plasma, a re-written desktop and panel with many new concepts; integrated desktop search; compositing as a feature of KWin; and a brand new visual style called Oxygen. KDE 4.0.3 is a bugfix release from the KDE 4.0 release series.
Fedora 9 does not include the legacy KDE 3 Desktop. It does include a compatibility KDE 3 Development Platform, which can be used to build and run KDE 3 applications within KDE 4 or any other desktop environment. Refer to the Backwards Compatibility section for more details about what is included.
Since networkmanager does not work with the version of NetworkManager available in this release, the KDE Live images use nm-applet from NetworkManager-gnome as a replacement. The gnome-keyring-daemon facility saves passwords for these encryption technologies. (The dummy knetworkmanager package from Fedora 8 that only called nm-applet is no longer used.)
As the native KWin window manager now optionally supports compositing and desktop effects, the KDE Live images no longer include Compiz/Beryl. The KWin compositing/effects mode is disabled by default, but can be enabled in systemsettings. Compiz (with KDE 4 integration) is available from the repository by installing the compiz-kde package.

9.2.1. Workspace Changes

  • Plasma replaces the old Kicker and KDesktop. Plasma manages both the panel and the desktop, and it is now possible to place the same Plasma applets (plasmoids) on both the panel and the desktop if the applet supports the size restrictions imposed by the panel.
  • The old KDE Control Center (KControl) has been replaced by System Settings (systemsettings).
  • The KDM login manager uses a new theme format. Therefore, KDM themes written for KDE 3 do not work with the KDM in KDE 4. KDM now includes support for theme configuration, thus the external kdmtheme tool is no longer needed.
All the above applications can be found in the kdebase-workspace package.

9.2.2. Package and Application Changes

  • The packages qt , kdelibs , and kdebase now represent the KDE 4 version, obsoleting the qt4 , kdelibs4 , and kdebase4 packages in previous releases of Fedora.
  • The Qt/KDE 3 versions have been renamed qt3 , kdelibs3 , and kdebase3 . Fedora 9 only includes parts of kdebase3 . Refer to the Backwards Compatibility section for details.
  • Upstream KDE has split the kdebase module into three modules: kdebase-runtime , kdebase (sometimes called kdebase-apps to distinguish it from the old monolithic kdebase ), and kdebase-workspace . This split is reflected in the Fedora packages.
  • Fedora 9 adds a kdegames3 package containing the games not yet ported to KDE 4.
  • Dolphin, which is part of kdebase , replaces d3lphin .
  • The kdebase-workspace package now includes support for KDM theme configuration, and therefore obsoletes kdmtheme .
  • Okular replaces KPDF, KGhostView, and KFax in kdegraphics .
  • The package kaider replaces KBabel, which used to be part of kdesdk .
  • The okteta package replaces KHexEdit, which used to be part of kdeutils .
  • The packages kalgebra and marble are now part of kdeedu .
  • The ksudoku package is now part of kdegames .
  • The package gwenview is now part of kdegraphics .
  • The kiconedit and kcoloredit packages, which used to be part of kdegraphics , are now separate packages.
  • The package kmid , which used to be part of kdemultimedia , is now a separate package.
  • The Fedora KDE team has decided to drop the -extras sub-packages, which contained deprecated or unstable applications, because those applications have been either fixed or dropped in KDE 4.
  • The package kdeadmin-kpackage has been split out of kdeadmin because KPackage now depends on smart .
  • KDE 4 dropped the kdeaddons module. Therefore, there is no kdeaddons package in Fedora 9. The Atlantik Designer, for use with kdegames3 , is still available as kdeaddons-atlantikdesigner. The ksig application and the konq-plugins Konqueror plugins are now their own packages, and extragear-plasma replaces the Kicker addons.

9.3. PackageKit

PackageKit is the new, default distribution-neutral package management framework and frontend. Refer to for further details.

9.4. Bluetooth

The Bluetooth feature in Fedora 9 ( has several enhancements specific to this release. The future generations of this feature are covered with greater detail at:
File sending to a Bluetooth device is now handled with the bluetooth-sendto program from the bluez-gnome package, which replaces gnome-obex-sen. Send a file in Nautilus from the Send to... function in the right-click context menu.
Pulling files from a Bluetooth device is now included in gnome-user-share , which has ObexFTP and ObexPush support built-in. Share files via SystemPreferencesInternet and NetworkPersonal File SharingShare Public files over Bluetooth (ObexFTP support), or pull files using ObexPush with PersonalFile SharingReceive files in Downloads folder over Bluetooth.
Files on the remote Bluetooth device can be viewed directly in Nautilus through GVFS, which supports Bluetooth devices. Synchronizing a Bluetooth device with a personal information manager (PIM) device is done using gnome-pilot
Browsing of Bluetooth devices is done via the right-click context menu from the Bluetooth icon on the desktop panel.

9.5. XULRunner

Applications that require the Gecko engine have had to depend on the entirety of Firefox. XULRunner is the Mozilla effort to split the browser engine for applications that require only that functionality, and no user interface parts. This split provides more API/ABI stability and a cleaner build environment for applications using Gecko. Many of the applications in Fedora that previously used Gecko now are built against XULRunner.
For full upstream documentation, refer to

9.6. Web Browsers

This release of Fedora includes version 3.0 (beta 5) of the popular Firefox web browser. Refer to for more information about Firefox. The nspluginwrapper package is included by default even on 32-bit systems since it separates the plug-ins to run in their own address space, which increases security and reliability of the browser.
For information about Firefox in Fedora, refer to this feature page:

9.6.1. NSpluginwrapper

nspluginwrapper is now installed by default, which makes web browser plug-ins run in a separate memory address. This increases browser stability, as plug-in crashes will not affect the web browser itself. As well, this increases security, as Fedora 9 has optional SELinux policies to sandbox plug-ins, to decrease the impact of security issues.

9.6.2. Enabling Flash Plugin

Fedora includes swfdec and gnash, which are free and open source implementations of Flash. We encourage you to try either of them before seeking out Adobe's proprietary Flash Player plug-in software. The Adobe Flash Player plug-in uses a legacy sound framework that does not work correctly without additional support. Run the following command to enable this support:
su -c "yum install libflashsupport"

Users of Fedora x86_64 must install the nspluginwrapper.i386 package to enable the 32-bit Adobe Flash Player plug-in in Firefox, and the libflashsupport.i386 package to enable sound from the plug-in.
  1. Create the 32bit mozilla plugin directory:
    su -c "mkdir -p /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins"
  2. Install the nspluginwrapper.i386 , nspluginwrapper.x86_64 , and libflashsupport.i386 packages:
    su -c "yum install nspluginwrapper.{i386,x86_64} libflashsupport.i386"
  3. Install flash-plugin as shown above.
    Run mozilla-plugin-config to register the flash plugin:
    su -c "mozilla-plugin-config -i -g -v"
  4. Close all Firefox windows, and then relaunch Firefox.
    Type about:plugins in the URL bar to ensure the plugin is loaded.

9.7. Mail Clients

The mail-notification package has been split. The Evolution plug-in is now in a separate package, mail-notification-evolution-plugin. When the mail-notification package is updated, this plug-in is added automatically.
Fedora 9 includes Mozilla Thunderbird version 2.0, which has numerous performance improvements, folder viewing enhancements, and enhanced mail notification support. For further details, refer to the Mozilla Thunderbird 2.0 release notes:

9.8. Disabling PC Speaker

PC speaker is enabled by default in Fedora. If you do not prefer this, there are two ways to circumvent the sounds:
  • Reduce its volume to a acceptable level or completely mute the PC speaker in alsamixer with the setting for PC Speak.
  • Disable the PC speaker system wide by running the following commands in a console.
su -
modprobe -r pcspkr
echo "install pcspkr :" >> /etc/modprobe.conf

9.9. International Clock Applet

The new clock applet in the GNOME panel has expanded to support additional international timezones in the display, as well as weather information for each configured timezone displayed. This work, which involved merging intlclock with the GNOME clock applet, provides all the functionality of system-config-date and the weather applet. Additional features include: users can choose arbtirary locations instead of principal timezones; UI enhancements for new and old functions; and full weather information shown in a tool tip.
Read more about this feature:

9.10. Dictionaries Consolidated

There is a new default spell checking back-end, hunspell, for both the GNOME and KDE desktops, as well as applications such as, Firefox, and other XULRunner-based applications. This common back-end includes a set of shared, multi-lingual dictionaries for use with hunspell. This feature uses a single set of common dictionaries regardless of the application, which gives consistent suggestions for misspelled words and uses less diskspace by eliminating duplicate dictionaries.
Details on this effort are here:

9.11. Compiz

Fedora 9 ships with Compiz 0.7.2, which improves multi-display support, adds KDE4 support, adds a configurable middle and right-click button, and mouse wheel actions for GTK Window Decorator. Compiz 0.7.2 adds many improvements and bug fixes.
For further details, refer to the Compiz 0.7.2 release announcement:

9.12. vmmouse Driver

Due to a bug in the shipping xorg-x11-drv-vmmouse driver, the mouse position may not be correctly positioned on a virtual machine guest's display. As a workaround until an update, add Option NoAutoAddDevices to the ServerFlags section of /etc/X11/xorg.conf in the guest machine. Create the section if necessary:
Section "ServerFlags"
	Option      "NoAutoAddDevices"

10. File Systems

Latest Release Notes on the Web

These release notes may be updated. To view the latest release notes for Fedora, visit:
Fedora 9 provides basic support for encrypted swap partitions and non-root file systems. To use it, add entries to /etc/crypttab and reference the created devices in /etc/fstab.
New in Fedora 9, the installer Anaconda has support for creating encrypted file systems during installation. For more information on that, refer to the Fedora Installation Guide.
Installing to encrypted volumes, including the root file system, is now supported. There is no configuration tool for adding or removing keys from volumes at a later time, or otherwise doing modification of the encryption. Refer to this feature page for more information:
For full instructions on using encrypted file systems, refer to the Fedora Encryption and Privacy Guide.

10.1. Ext4 Preview

The new ext4 file system is available in Fedora 9 as a nearly feature complete preview. While an ext3 file system can be mounted as ext4, an ext3 to ext4 conversion tool is planned that converts existing ext3 on-disk format to ext4.
Fedora 9 may be installed onto an ext4 file system by adding the ext4 option to the installer boot parameters and selecting custom partitioning.

e2fsprogs userspace tools

The e2fsprogs userspace tools shipping with Fedora 9 are not yet fully ext4-capable. In particular, fsck ability is limited.
For more information about this feature:

11. Web Servers

Latest Release Notes on the Web

These release notes may be updated. To view the latest release notes for Fedora, visit:

11.1. PostgreSQL DBD Driver

Users of the mod_dbd module should note that the apr-util DBD driver for PostgreSQL is now distributed as a separate dynamically-loaded module. The driver module is now included in the apr-util-pgsql package. A MySQL driver is now also available, in the apr-util-mysql package.

11.2. TurboGears Applications

SQLAlchemy has been updated to 0.4.x. TurboGears Applications developed using SQLAlchemy for their database layer will need to update their startup scripts. Instead of:
import pkg_resources
the start script needs to have:
__requires__ = 'TurboGears[future]'
import pkg_resources

11.3. Drupal

Drupal has been updated from the 5.x series to 6.2. For details, refer to:
Remember to log in to your site as the admin user, and disable any third-party modules before upgrading this package. After upgrading the package:
  1. Copy /etc/drupal/default/settings.php.rpmsave to /etc/drupal/default/settings.php, and repeat for any additional sites' settings.php files.
  2. Browse to http://host/drupal/update.php to run the upgrade script.

11.4. Squid

Squid has been updated from version 2.6 to 3.0.STABLE2. The configuration files are not entirely backwards compatible. For further details, refer to the Squid release notes:
As well, due to a bug, the transparent proxy does not work. This should be resolved after the first update.

12. Mail Servers

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These release notes may be updated. To view the latest release notes for Fedora, visit:
This section concerns electronic mail servers or mail transfer agents (MTAs).

12.1. Sendmail

By default, the Sendmail mail transport agent (MTA) does not accept network connections from any host other than the local computer. To configure Sendmail as a server for other clients:
  1. Edit /etc/mail/ and either change the DAEMON_OPTIONS line to also listen on network devices, or comment out this option entirely using the dnl comment delimiter.
  2. Install the sendmail-cf package:
    yum install sendmail-cf
  3. Regenerate /etc/mail/
    make -C /etc/mail

13. Development

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These release notes may be updated. To view the latest release notes for Fedora, visit:
This section covers various development tools and features.

13.1. Tools

13.1.1. GCC Compiler Collection

This release of Fedora has been built with GCC 4.3.0, which is included with the distribution.
For more information on GCC 4.3, refer to: Code Generation
Starting with gcc-4.1.2-25 and glibc-2.6.90-14 , the -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 option protects not only C code, but also C++. There have been several security issues already which would not have been exploitable if this checking was in place earlier. Refer to this announcement:

13.1.2. Eclipse

This release of Fedora includes Fedora Eclipse, based on the Eclipse SDK version 3.3.2. The 3.3.x series of releases has a "New and Noteworthy" page, and release notes specific to 3.3.2 are also available.
The Eclipse SDK is known variously as "the Eclipse Platform," "the Eclipse IDE," and "Eclipse." The Eclipse SDK is the foundation for the combined release of twenty-one Eclipse projects under the Callisto combined release umbrella:
Some of the Europa projects are included in Fedora:
Other Eclipse projects available in Fedora include:
Assistance in getting more projects packaged and tested with GCJ is always welcome. Contact the interested parties through fedora-devel-java-list and/or #fedora-java on freenode:
Fedora also includes plugins and features that are particularly useful to FLOSS hackers, ChangeLog editing with eclipse-changelog , and Bugzilla interaction with eclipse-mylyn-bugzilla . Our CDT package, eclipse-cdt , includes a snapshot release of work to integrate with the GNU Autotools. There is also eclipse-rpm-editor for editing RPM specfiles.
The latest information regarding these projects can be found at the Fedora Eclipse Project page: Non-packaged Plugins and Features
Fedora Eclipse allows non-root users to make use of the Update Manager functionality for installing non-packaged plugins and features. Such plugins are installed in the user's home directory under the .eclipse directory. Upgrading from Fedora 8
Users upgrading from Fedora 8 should be aware that cached content in their home directory may not be flushed properly (see Eclipse bug #215034). To work around this issue, run Eclipse from a terminal with the -clean option. Note: this only needs to be done once. 64-bit Java Runtime Environments and JNI
Do not try to run Fedora's x86_64 Eclipse packages on Sun's 32-bit JRE. They will fail. Either switch to a 64-bit proprietary JRE, or, if available, install the 32-bit version of the packages. To install a 32-bit version, run the following command (SWT is given as an example):
yum install libswt3-gtk2.i386

Likewise, the 32-bit JNI libraries shipped by default on ppc64 systems do not run with a 64-bit JRE. To install the 64-bit version, use the following command:
yum install package_name.ppc64

14. Security

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These release notes may be updated. To view the latest release notes for Fedora, visit:
This section highlights various security items from Fedora.

14.1. Security Enhancements

Fedora continues to improve its many proactive security features.

14.2. Support for SHA-256 and SHA-512 passwords

The glibc package in Fedora 8 had support for passwords using SHA-256 and SHA-512 hashing. Previously, only DES and MD5 were available. These tools have been extended in Fedora 9. Password hashing using the SHA-256 and SHA-512 hash functions is now supported.
To switch to SHA-256 or SHA-512 on an installed system, use authconfig --passalgo=sha256 --update or authconfig --passalgo=sha512 --update. Alternatively, use the authconfig-gtk GUI tool to configure the hashing method. Existing user accounts will not be affected until their passwords are changed.
SHA-512 is used by default on newly installed systems. Other algorithms can be configured only for kickstart installations, by using the --passalgo or --enablemd5 options for the kickstart auth command. If your installation does not use kickstart, use authconfig as described above, and then change the root user password, and passwords for other users created after installation.
New options now appear in libuser , pam , and shadow-utils to support these password hashing algorithms. Running authconfig configures all these options automatically, so it is not necessary to modify them manually.
  • New values for the crypt_style option, and the new options hash_rounds_min, and hash_rounds_max, are now supported in the [defaults] section of /etc/libuser.conf. Refer to the libuser.conf(5) man page for details.
  • New options, sha256, sha512, and rounds, are now supported by the pam_unix PAM module. Refer to the pam_unix(8) man page for details.
  • New options, ENCRYPT_METHOD, SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS, and SHA_CRYPT_MAX_ROUNDS, are now supported in /etc/login.defs. Refer to the login.defs(5) man page for details. Corresponding options were added to chpasswd(8) and newusers(8).

14.3. FORTIFY_SOURCE extended to cover more functions

FORTIFY_SOURCE protection now covers asprintf, dprintf, vasprintf, vdprintf, obstack_printf and obstack_vprintf. This improvement is particularly useful for applications that use the glib2 library, as several of its functions use vasprintf.

14.4. SELinux Enhancements

Different roles are now available, to allow finer-grained access control:
  • guest_t does not allow running setuid binaries, making network connections, or using a GUI.
  • xguest_t disallows network access except for HTTP via a Web browser, and no setuid binaries.
  • user_t is ideal for office users: prevents becoming root via setuid applications.
  • staff_t is same as user_t, except that root access via sudo is allowed.
  • unconfined_t provides full access, the same as when not using SELinux.
As well, browser plug-ins wrapped with nspluginwrapper, which is the default, now run confined.

14.5. Default Firewall Behavior

In Fedora 9, the default firewall behavior has changed. There are no default ports open, except for SSH (22), which is opened by Anaconda.

14.6. General Information

A general introduction to the many proactive security features in Fedora, current status, and policies is available at

14.7. SELinux

The SELinux project pages have troubleshooting tips, explanations, and pointers to documentation and references. Some useful links include the following:

14.8. Free IPA

Free IPA is a centrally managed identity, policy, and audit installation.
The IPA server installer assumes a relatively clean system, installing and configuring several services:
  • a Fedora Directory Server instance
  • KDC
  • Apache
  • ntpd
  • TurboGears
Some effort is made to be able to roll back the changes made but they are not guaranteed. Similarly the ipa-client-install tool overwrites PAM (/etc/pam.conf) and Kerberos (/etc/krb5.conf) configurations.
IPA does not support other instances of Fedora Directory Server on the same machine at install time, even listening on different ports. In order to install IPA, other instances must be removed. IPA itself can handle this removal.
There is currently no mechanism for migrating existing users into an IPA server.
The server self-configures to be a client of itself. If the Directory Server or KDC fail to start on bootup, boot into single-user mode in order to resolve the issue.
For more information, refer to this feature page:

15. Java

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15.1. OpenJDK

Fedora 9 includes OpenJDK 6, a Free Software implementation of the Java Platform, Standard Edition. OpenJDK 6 is not yet Java compatible; work is underway to certify it.
Fedora will track Sun's stable OpenJDK 6 branch.

15.2. OpenJDK Replaces IcedTea

The OpenJDK 6 packages, java-1.6.0-openjdk*, replace their IcedTea counterparts, java-1.7.0-icedtea*. The Fedora 8 IcedTea packages track the unstable OpenJDK 7 branch, whereas the java-1.6.0-openjdk* packages track the stable OpenJDK 6 branch. The decision to have OpenJDK 6 replace IcedTea was made for several reasons:
  • Sun has replaced most of the encumbrances for which IcedTea was providing replacements. For the rest of the encumbrances, replacements have been merged from the IcedTea project.
  • IcedTea's mandate is to merge as much as possible with OpenJDK, so the differences between IcedTea and OpenJDK should diminish over time.
  • OpenJDK 6 is a stable branch, whereas OpenJDK 7 is unstable, and is not expected to ship a stable release until 2009.
  • Sun has licensed the OpenJDK trademark for use in Fedora.
  • Shipping both OpenJDK 6 and IcedTea would have been confusing, and would have added size to the distribution.
IcedTea continues to provide autotools support ( autoconf , automake , libtool , and so on), a portable interpreter for PowerPC and 64-bit PowerPC architectures, plugin support, Web Start support, and patches to integrate OpenJDK into Fedora. The IcedTea sources are included in the java-1.6.0-openjdk SRPM.
If IcedTea is already installed, the package changeover does not happen automatically. The packages related to IcedTea based on OpenJDK 7 must first be erased, then the new OpenJDK 6 packages installed.
su -c "yum erase java-1.7.0-icedtea{,-plugin}"
su -c "yum install java-1.6.0-openjdk{,-plugin}"

15.3. Handling Java Applets

Upstream OpenJDK does not provide a plugin. The Fedora OpenJDK packages include an adaptation of gcjwebplugin, that runs untrusted applets safely in a Web browser. The plugin is packaged as java-1.6.0-openjdk-plugin.
  • The gcjwebplugin adaptation has no support for the bytecode-to-JavaScript bridge (LiveConnect). Applets that rely on this bridge will not work. Experimental LiveConnect support exists in the IcedTea repository, but is not ready for deployment in Fedora.
  • The gcjwebplugin adaptation does not support signed applets. Signed applets will run in untrusted mode. Experimental support for signed applets is present in the IcedTea repository, but it is not ready for deployment in Fedora.
  • The gcjwebplugin security policy may be too restrictive. To enable restricted applets, run the firefox -g command in a terminal window to see what is being restricted, and then grant the restricted permission in the /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.6.0-openjdk- file.

15.4. Handling Web Start Applications

Upstream OpenJDK does not provide Web Start support. Experimental Web Start support via NetX is present in the IcedTea repository, but is not ready for deployment in Fedora.

15.5. Fedora and JPackage

Fedora includes many packages derived from the JPackage Project. Some of these packages are modified in Fedora to remove proprietary software dependencies, and to make use of GCJ's ahead-of-time compilation feature. Use the Fedora repositories to update these packages, or use the JPackage repository for packages not provided by Fedora. Refer to the JPackage website for more information about the project, and the software it provides.
An incompatibility between Fedora and the JPackage jpackage-utils , that prevented installing JPackage's jpackage-utils on Fedora, is resolved in this release.

Mixing Packages from Fedora and JPackage

Research package compatibility before you install software from both the Fedora and JPackage repositories on the same system. Incompatible packages may cause complex issues.

16. System Services

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16.1. Upstart

Fedora 9 features the Upstart initialization system. All System V init scripts should run fine in compatibility mode. However, users who have made customizations to their /etc/inittab file will need to port those modifications to upstart. For information on how upstart works, see the init(8) and initctl(8) man pages. For information on writing upstart scripts, see the events(5) man page, and also the Upstart Getting Started Guide:
Due to the change of init systems, it is recommended that users who do an upgrade on a live file system to Fedora 9, reboot soon afterwards.

16.2. NetworkManager

Fedora 9 features NetworkManager. NetworkManager 0.7 provides improved mobile broadband support, including GSM and CDMA devices, and now supports multiple devices, ad-hoc networking for sharing connections, and the use of system-wide network configuration. It is now enabled by default on all installations. When using NetworkManager, be aware of the following:
  • NetworkManager does not currently support all virtual device types. Users who use bridging, bonding, or VLANs may need to switch to the old network service after configuration of those interfaces.
  • NetworkManager starts the network asynchronously. Users who have applications that require the network to be fully initialized during boot should set the NETWORKWAIT variable in /etc/sysconfig/network. Please file bugs about cases where this is necessary, so we can fix the applications in question.

16.3. Autofs

Autofs is no longer installed by default. Users who wish to use Autofs can choose it from the System Tools group in the installer, or with the package installation tools.

17. Multimedia

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Fedora includes applications for assorted multimedia functions, including playback, recording, and editing. Additional packages are available through the Fedora Package Collection software repository. For additional information about multimedia in Fedora, refer to the Multimedia section of the Fedora Project website at

17.1. Multimedia Players

The default installation of Fedora includes Rhythmbox and Totem for media playback. The Fedora repositories include many other popular programs such as the XMMS player and KDE's amaroK. Both GNOME and KDE have a selection of players that can be used with a variety of formats. Third parties may offer additional programs to handle other formats.
Totem, the default movie player for GNOME, now has the ability to switch playback back-ends without recompilation or switching packages. To install the xine back-end, run the following command as root:
yum install totem-xine
To run Totem with the xine back-end once, run the following command as root:
totem-backend -b xine totem
To change the default back-end to xine for the entire system, run the following command as root:
totem-backend -b xine
While using the xine back-end, it is possible to temporarily use the GStreamer back-end. To use the GStreamer back-end, run the following command as root:
totem-backend -b gstreamer

17.2. Ogg and Xiph.Org Foundation Formats

Fedora includes complete support for the Ogg media container format and the Vorbis audio, Theora video, Speex audio and FLAC lossless audio formats. These freely-distributable formats are not encumbered by patent or license restrictions. They provide powerful and flexible alternatives to more popular, restricted formats. The Fedora Project encourages the use of open source formats in place of restricted ones. For more information on these formats and how to use them, refer to the Xiph.Org Foundation's web site at

17.3. MP3, DVD, and Other Excluded Multimedia Formats

Fedora cannot include support for MP3 or DVD video playback or recording. The MP3 formats are patented, and the patent holders have not provided the necessary licenses. DVD video formats are patented and equipped with an encryption scheme. The patent holders have not provided the necessary licenses, and the code needed to decrypt CSS-encrypted discs may violate the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, a copyright law of the United States. Fedora also excludes other multimedia software due to patent, copyright, or license restrictions, including Adobe's Flash Player and Real Media's Real Player. For more on this subject, please refer to
While other MP3 options may be available for Fedora, Fluendo now offers an MP3 plugin for GStreamer that has the related patents licensed for end users. This plugin enables MP3 support in applications that use the GStreamer framework as a backend. We cannot distribute this plugin in Fedora for licensing reasons, but it offers a new solution for an old problem. For more information, refer to the Installing Fluendo MP3 Plug-in or Installing MP3 Plug-in with Codeina pages.

17.4. CD and DVD Authoring and Burning

Fedora include a variety of tools for easily mastering and burning CDs and DVDs. GNOME users can burn directly from the Nautilus file manager. The Fedora software repositories also contain additional software, such as brasero , gnomebaker , or k3b , for these tasks. Console tools include wodim, readom, genisoimage, and other popular applications.

17.5. Screencasts

You can use Fedora to create and play back screencasts, which are recorded desktop sessions, using open technologies. Fedora includes istanbul , which creates screencasts using the Theora video format, and 'byzanz', which creates screencasts as animated GIF files. You can play back these videos using one of several players included in Fedora. This is the preferred way to submit screencasts to the Fedora Project for either developers or end-users. For more comprehensive instructions, refer to the ScreenCasting page.

17.6. Extended Support through Plugins

Most of the media players in Fedora support the use of plugins to add support for additional media formats and sound output systems. Some use powerful backends like the gstreamer package to handle media format support and sound output. Fedora offers plugin packages for these backends and for individual applications, and third parties may offer additional plugins to add even greater capabilities.

18. Games and Entertainment

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Fedora provides a selection of games that cover a variety of genres. Users can install a small package of games for GNOME (called gnome-games ) and KDE ( kdegames ). There are also many additional games that span every major genre available in the repositories.
The Fedora Project website features a section dedicated to games that details many of the available games, including overviews and installation instructions. For more information, refer to:
For a list of other games that are available for installation, select ApplicationsAdd / Remove Software, or via the command line:
yum groupinfo "Games and Entertainment"

For help using yum to install the assorted game packages, refer to the guide available at

19. Virtualization

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Virtualization in Fedora 9 includes major changes, and new features, that continue to support the Xen and KVM platforms.

19.1. Kernel Integration Improvements

The Xen kernel is now based on the paravirt ops implementation from the upstream kernel. Previously, the Xen kernel was created by forward-porting Xen bits from the 2.6.18 kernel into the current Fedora kernel. This task was arduous and labor intensive, and resulted in the Xen kernel being several releases behind the bare-metal kernel. The inclusion of paravirt ops now makes this process unnecessary. Once paravirt ops is merged upstream, Xen will no longer require a separate kernel.
However, the Xen kernel now lacks Dom0 support. An existing Xen host/Dom0 must continue to run Fedora 8. Xen Dom0 support will be added back in Fedora 10.
Fully virtualized Linux guests now have 3 possible installation methods:
  • PXE boot from the network.
  • Local CDROM drive / ISO image.
  • Network install from a FTP/HTTP/NFS hosted distribution tree.
The latter allows for fully automated installation through the use of kickstart files. This provides parity between Xen HVM and KVM guests in terms of installation methods.

19.2. Improved Storage Management

Previously, Fedora introduced the ability to manage existing guest domains remotely using libvirt . It was not possible to create new guests due to the lack of storage management capabilities. In Fedora 9, new storage management can create and delete storage volumes from a remote host using libvirt .

19.3. PolicyKit Integration

Previously, the virt-manager application ran as root when managing a local hypervisor, and used consolehelper to authenticate from a desktop session. Running GTK applications as root is bad practice. PolicyKit integration now permits running virt-manager as a regular user.

19.4. Improved Remote Authentication

Previously, Fedora introduced support for secure remote management using TLS/SSL, and x509 certificates. Fedora 9 improves remote management capabilities by adding support for authentication by password database, Kerberos domain controller, or system authentication using PAM. This feature applies to all tools using libvirt .

19.5. Other Improvements

Fedora also includes the following virtualization improvements:
  • a new P2V tool, shipping as a Live CD, for converting a bare-metal install to a virtual guest
  • a new tool, xenner, for running Xen-paravirtual kernels on top of KVM
  • storage and network paravirtual-drivers for KVM guests
  • full support for monitoring network and block statistics of QEMU and KVM in libvirt and virt-top , bringing parity with statistics monitoring, previously only available to Xen guests

20. X Window System (Graphics)

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This section contains information related to the X Window System implementation, X.Org, provided with Fedora.

20.1. Faster X Start-up and Shutdown

Fedora 9 features a number of changes designed to make X faster in starting and shutting down and to make other improvements. Full details of the project can be found through this feature page:

20.2. X Configuration Changes

The X.Org 1.4.99 X server has been modified to automatically detect and configure most hardware, eliminating the need to modify the /etc/X11/xorg.conf configuration file. The only hardware configured by default in the xorg.conf configuration file written by Anaconda is:
  • the graphics driver, and
  • the keyboard map
All other hardware, such as monitors (both LCD and CRT), USB mice, and touchpads, should be detected and configured automatically.
The X server queries the attached monitor for supported resolution ranges, and attempts to pick the highest resolution available with the correct aspect ratio for the display. Set the preferred resolution in SystemPreferencesScreen Resolution, and the default resolution for the system in SystemAdministrationDisplay.
If the /etc/X11/xorg.conf configuration file is not present, X automatically detects the appropriate driver, and assumes a 105-key US keyboard layout.
In certain situations, the evdev driver was used, even when the kbd driver was specified in /etc/X11/xorg.conf. Removing the evdev driver caused errors and warnings such as the following:
(WW) Warning, couldn't open module evdev
(II) UnloadModule: "evdev"
(EE) Failed to load module "evdev" (module does not exist, 0)
(EE) No input driver matching `evdev'
[config/hal] NewInputDeviceRequest failed
(II) LoadModule: "evdev"
In Fedora 9, the XKB settings are read from /etc/sysconfig/keyboard, which gives users the correct layout. The KEYTABLE option, configured in /etc/sysconfig/keyboard, also sets the layout for X. The XKB_VARIANT and XKB_OPTIONS variables can be configured to customize XKB.

20.3. Third Party Video Drivers

Refer to the Xorg third-party drivers page for detailed guidelines on using third-party video drivers.

21. Database Servers

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21.1. MySQL

Fedora now provides MySQL 5.0.51.a. For a list of the enhancements provided by this version, refer to
For more information on upgrading databases from previous releases of MySQL, refer to the MySQL website at

21.1.1. DBD Driver

The MySQL DBD driver has been dual-licensed and the related licensing issues have been resolved ( The resulting apr-util-mysql package is now included in the Fedora software repositories.

21.2. PostgreSQL

This release of Fedora includes PostgreSQL 8.3.0. For more information on this new version, refer to

Upgrading Databases

Before upgrading an existing Fedora system with a PostgreSQL database, check and then follow, if necessary, the procedure described at Otherwise the data may be not accessible by the new version of PostgreSQL.

22. Internationalization (i18n)

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This section includes information on language support under Fedora.

22.1. Language Coverage

Fedora features a variety of software which is translated in many languages. For a list of languages refer to the translation statistics for Anaconda, which is one of the core software applications in Fedora.

22.1.1. Language Support Installation

To install additional language support from the Languages group, use ApplicationsAdd/Remove Software, or run this command:
su -c "yum groupinstall language-support"

In the command above, language is one of assamese, bengali, chinese, gujarati, hindi, japanese, kannada, korean, malayalam, marathi, oriya, punjabi, sinhala, tamil, telegu, thai, and so on.
SCIM users upgrading from earlier releases of Fedora are strongly urged to install scim-bridge-gtk . This application works well with third-party C++ applications linked against older versions of libstdc++ .
To add SCIM support to input a particular language, install scim-lang-LANG , where LANG is one of assamese, bengali, chinese, dhivehi, farsi, gujarati, hindi, japanese, kannada, korean, latin, malayalam, marathi, oriya, punjabi, sinhalese, tamil, telugu, thai, or tibetan.

22.1.2. Transifex

Transifex is Fedora's online tool to facilitate contributing translations to projects hosted on remote and disparate version control systems. Many of the core packages use Transifex to receive translations from numerous contributors.
Through a combination of new Web tools, community growth, and better processes, translators can contribute directly to any upstream project through one translator-oriented Web interface. Developers of projects with no existing translation community can easily reach out to Fedora's established community for translations. In turn, translators can reach out to numerous projects related to Fedora to easily contribute translations.

22.2. Fonts

Fonts for all available languages are installed by default on the desktop to give good default language coverage. dejavu-fonts replaces dejavu-lgc-fonts as the default system font.

22.2.1. Chinese fonts

  • The wqy-zenkai-fonts package has been added.

22.2.2. Indic fonts

  • The samyak-fonts package has been added.
  • The sarai-fonts package has been added.
  • The smc-fonts package has been added for Malayalam.

22.2.3. Japanese fonts

  • VLGothic-fonts is the new default font for Japanese in Fedora 9. It now has a subpackage VLGothic-fonts-proportional for its proportional version.

22.2.4. Nepali fonts

  • The madan-fonts package has been added.

22.2.5. Thai fonts

  • The thaifonts-scalable package has been added, making Thai TrueType fonts available in Fedora.

22.3. Input Methods

It is now possible to start and stop the of Input Methods in GTK applications during runtime thanks to the new imsettings framework. The GTK_IM_MODULE environment variable is no longer needed by default but can still be used to override the imsettings.

22.3.1. im-chooser

With the new imsettings framework, im-chooser can now start and stop Input Method usage dynamically on the GNOME Desktop.
Input methods only start by default on desktops running in an Asian locale. The current list is: as, bn, gu, hi, ja, kn, ko, ml, mr, ne, or, pa, si, ta, te, th, ur, vi, zh. Use im-chooser via SystemPreferencesPersonalInput Method to enable or disable Input method usage on your desktop.

22.3.2. SCIM hotkeys

SCIM now only defines trigger hotkeys for Asian languages as in the following table:
Trigger hotkeys
Zenkaku_Hankaku, Alt-`, or Ctrl-Space
Shift-Space, Hangul, or Ctrl-Space
Table 1. Hotkeys

22.3.3. scim-python

This release adds the scim-python package, which allows writing Input Method Engines for SCIM in python.

22.3.4. scim-python-chinese

The scim-python package also includes a subpackage scim-python-pinyin that provides PinYin and ShuangPin Input Methods for improved input of Simplified Chinese. The PinYin Input Method replaces scim-pinyin as the default input method for Simplified Chinese. The scim-python-xingma package provides a number of tables for other Chinese input methods.

23. Backwards Compatibility

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Fedora provides legacy system libraries for compatibility with older software. This software is part of the Legacy Software Development group, which is not installed by default. Users who require this functionality may select this group either during installation or after the installation process is complete. To install the package group on a Fedora system, use ApplicationsAdd/Remove Software or enter the following command in a terminal window:
su -c "yum groupinstall 'Legacy Software Development'"
Enter the password for the root account when prompted.

23.1. Compiler Compatibility

The compat-gcc-34 package has been included for compatibility reasons:

23.2. KDE 3 Development Platform / Libraries

Fedora now features KDE 4.0, and no longer offers KDE 3 as a full desktop environment. Fedora does provide the following KDE 3.5 library packages to run and build the many existing KDE 3 applications:
  • qt3 , qt3-devel (and other qt3-* packages): Qt 3.3.8b
  • kdelibs3 , kdelibs3-devel : KDE 3 libraries
  • kdebase3 , kdebase3-devel : KDE 3 core files required by some applications
In addition, Fedora offers a kdegames3 package that includes games not ported to KDE 4 yet, and a KDE 3 version of libkdegames required by some third-party KDE 3 games.
Moreover, the KDE 4 kdebase-runtime package, which provides khelpcenter , also sets up khelpcenter as a service for KDE 3 applications, so help in KDE 3 applications works. The KDE 3 version of khelpcenter is no longer provided, and the KDE 4 version is used instead.
These packages are designed to:
  • comply with the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), and
  • be completely safe to install in parallel with KDE 4, including the -devel packages.
In order to achieve this goal, Fedora KDE SIG members have made two changes to the KDE 4 kdelibs-devel packages:
  • The library symlinks are installed to /usr/lib/kde4/devel or /usr/lib64/kde4/devel depending on system architecture.
  • The kconfig_compiler and makekdewidgets tools have been renamed kconfig_compiler4 and makekdewidgets4 , respectively.
These changes should be completely transparent to the vast majority of KDE 4 applications that use cmake to build, since FindKDE4Internal.cmake has been patched to match these changes. The KDE SIG made these changes to the KDE 4 kdelibs-devel rather than to kdelibs3-devel because KDE 4 stores these locations in a central place, whereas KDE 3 applications usually contain hardcoded copies of the library search paths and executable names.
Note that kdebase3 does not include the following:
  • A complete KDE 3 desktop (workspace) which could be used instead of KDE 4; in particular, KDE 3 versions of KWin, KDesktop, Kicker, KSplash and KControl are not included.
  • The KDE 3 versions of kdebase applications such as Konqueror and KWrite, which are redundant with the KDE 4 versions and would conflict with them.
  • The libkdecorations library required for KWin 3 window decorations, as those window decorations cannot be used in the KDE 4 version of KWin.
  • The libkickermain library required by some Kicker applets, as there is no Kicker in Fedora 9 and thus Kicker applets cannot be used.

Developing against the legacy API is discouraged

As with any backwards-compatibility library, developing new software against the legacy API is discouraged.

24. Package Changes

For a list of packages that were updated since the previous release, refer to You can also find a comparison of major packages between all Fedora versions at

25. Fedora Project

The goal of the Fedora Project is to work with the Linux community to build a complete, general-purpose operating system exclusively from open source software. The Fedora Project is driven by the individuals that contribute to it. As a tester, developer, documenter, or translator, you can make a difference. Refer to for details. For information on the channels of communication for Fedora users and contributors, refer to
The Fedora Project is driven by the individuals that contribute to it. As a tester, developer, documenter, or translator, you can make a difference. See for details. For information on the channels of communication for Fedora users and contributors, refer to
In addition to the website, the following mailing lists are available:
To subscribe to any of these lists, send an email with the word "subscribe" in the subject to <listname>-request, where <listname> is one of the above list names. Alternately, you can subscribe to Fedora mailing lists through the Web interface at
The Fedora Project also uses several IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channels. IRC is a real-time, text-based form of communication, similar to Instant Messaging. With it, you may have conversations with multiple people in an open channel, or chat with someone privately one-on-one. To talk with other Fedora Project participants via IRC, access the Freenode IRC network. Refer to the Freenode website at for more information.
Fedora Project participants frequent the #fedora channel on the Freenode network, while Fedora Project developers may often be found on the #fedora-devel channel. Some of the larger projects may have their own channels as well. This information may be found on the webpage for the project, and at
In order to talk on the #fedora channel, you need to register your nickname, or nick. Instructions are given when you /join the channel.

IRC Channels

The Fedora Project and Red Hat have no control over the Fedora Project IRC channels or their content.

26. Colophon

As we use the term, a colophon:
  • recognizes contributors and provides accountability, and
  • explains tools and production methods.

26.1. Contributors

... and many more translators. Refer to the Web-updated version of these release notes as we add translators after release:

26.2. Production Methods

Beat writers produce the release notes directly on the Fedora Project Wiki. They collaborate with other subject matter experts during the test release phase of Fedora to explain important changes and enhancements. The editorial team ensures consistency and quality of the finished beats, and ports the Wiki material to DocBook XML in a revision control repository. At this point, the team of translators produces other language versions of the release notes, and then they become available to the general public as part of Fedora. The publication team also makes them, and subsequent errata, available via the Web.