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8.2. Available Boot Options

The following options are available in Fedora:

8.2.1. Specifying the Installation Source

Specifies the installation source - that is, a location where the installation program can find the images and packages it requires. For example:
The source must be either:
  • an installable tree, which is a directory structure containing the installation program's images, packages and repodata as well as a valid .treeinfo file
  • a DVD (a physical disk present in the system's DVD drive)
  • an ISO image of the full Fedora installation DVD, placed on a hard drive or a network location accessible from the installation system
This option allows for the configuration of different installation methods using different formats. The syntax is described in the table below.
Table 8.1. Installation Sources
Installation source Option format
Any CD/DVD drive inst.repo=cdrom
Specific CD/DVD drive inst.repo=cdrom:device
Hard Drive inst.repo=hd:device:/path
HTTP Server inst.repo=http://host/path
HTTPS Server inst.repo=https://host/path
FTP Server inst.repo=ftp://username:password@host/path
NFS Server inst.repo=nfs:[options:]server:/path [a]
[a] This option uses NFS protocol version 3 by default. To use a different version, add +nfsvers=X to options.

Disk device names may be specified using the following formats:
  • Kernel device name, for example /dev/sda1 or sdb2
  • File system label, for example LABEL=Flash or LABEL=RHEL7
  • File system UUID, for example UUID=8176c7bf-04ff-403a-a832-9557f94e61db
Non-alphanumeric characters must be represented as \xNN, where NN is the hexadecimal representation of the character. For example, \x20 is a white space (" ").
Specifies the location of the installation program runtime image to be loaded. The syntax is the same as in Table 8.1, “Installation Sources”. This option expects a path to a directory containing a valid .treeinfo file; the location of the runtime image will be read from this file if found. If a .treeinfo file is not available, Anaconda will try to load the image from LiveOS/squashfs.img.


By default, this boot option is used on the installation media and set to a specific label (for example, inst.stage2=hd:LABEL=F21\x20Server.x86_64). If you modify the default label of the file system containing the runtime image, you must also edit this option to match the new label.
If you need to perform a driver update during the installation, use the inst.dd= option. It can be used multiple times. The location of a driver RPM package can be specified using any of the formats described in Table 8.1, “Installation Sources”. With the exception of the inst.dd=cdrom option, the device name must always be specified. For example:
Using this option without any parameters (only as inst.dd) will prompt the installation program to ask you for a driver update disk with an interactive menu.


You should never attempt to perform a driver update during the installation unless a missing our faulty driver is preventing you from completing the installation. Updating drivers which are not essential during the installation should always be performed after the system is installed.
Prevents the installer from trying to automatically configure an installation source.
Normally, when you first enter the Installation Summary screen, the installer will attempt to configure an installation source based on the type of media you used to boot. The full Fedora Server DVD will configure the source as local media, the netinst ISO image will configure the closest network mirror, etc. This process takes time; therefore, if you plan to use a different source than the default, this option will allow you to enter the Installation Source screen immediately without having to wait for the initial configuration to finish.
Using this option will leave the installation source configuration in an error state - you must manually specify a source in the Installation Source screen to proceed with the installation. Alternatively, you can use the inst.repo= option described above to configure a specific source directly in the boot menu.