Opsi Boot

The Anaconda installer includes a range of boot options for administrators, which modify the default behavior of the installation program by enabling or disabling certain functions. To use one or more boot options, you either have to boot from installation media and append these options at the boot menu (see The Boot Menu), or you must add them into your PXE server configuration file if you are booting from a network (see Setting Up an Installation Server).

Anda dapat menggunakan beberapa opsi secara bersamaan; dalam hal ini, pisahkan dengan spasi tunggal.

Terdapat dua jenis opsi dasar yang dijelaskan dalam bab ini:

  • Opsi yang ditampilkan sebagai akhir dengan tanda "sama dengan" (=) memerlukan nilai untuk ditentukan - opsi tersebut tidak dapat digunakan sendiri. Misalnya, opsi [option] # inst.vncpassword = # juga harus berisi nilai (dalam hal ini, kata sandi). Format yang benar adalah [option] # inst.vncpassword = pass: atribut [] _ password_pass: atribut [] #. Opsi ini dengan sendirinya tidak valid tanpa kata sandi yang ditentukan.

  • Opsi yang ditampilkan tanpa tanda "pass: atribut []` = `pass: atribut []" tidak menerima nilai atau parameter apa pun. Misalnya, [opsi] # rd.live.check # opsi memaksa [aplikasi] * Anaconda * untuk memverifikasi media instalasi sebelum memulai instalasi; pemeriksaan akan dilakukan jika opsi ini ada, dan akan dilewati jika tidak ada.

Selain opsi yang dijelaskan dalam bab ini, prompt boot juga menerima opsi kernel [aplikasi] * dracut *. Daftar opsi ini tersedia pada manual dracut.cmdline (7).

Opsi boot khusus untuk program instalasi selalu dimulai dengan inst. dalam panduan ini. Awalan ini opsional untuk saat ini - misalnya, [option] resolution=1024x768 akan bekerja persis sama dengan inst.resolution=1024x768. Namun diharapkan awalan inst. akan menjadi keharusan di rilis mendatang.

Melakukan Konfigurasi Sistem Instalasi pada Menu Boot

The exact way to specify custom boot options is differs based on your system’s architecture, firmware and the method you use to boot the installation. If you are booting from local media, you can specify options in the boot menu, before you begin the installation; if you are booting from a network using a PXE server, you must add boot options into the boot loader configuration file before you boot the installation system. For specific instructions, see The Boot Menu if you are booting from local media, and Setting Up an Installation Server if you are booting from a server.

Opsi Boot yang Tersedia

Opsi-opsi berikut tersedia di Fedora:

Menentukan Sumber Instalasi

inst.repo=

Menentukan sumber instalasi - yaitu lokasi di mana program instalasi dapat menemukan images dan paket yang diperlukan. Sebagai contoh:

inst.repo=cdrom

Sumber harus berupa:

  • installable tree yang merupakan struktur direktori berisi images program instalasi, paket dan repodata serta file .treeinfo yang valid.

  • DVD (disk fisik yang dapat ditampilkan dalam drive DVD sistem)

  • ISO image dari DVD instalasi Fedora lengkap yang ditempatkan pada hard drive atar lokasi jaringan yang dapat diakses dari sistem instalasi.

    Opsi ini memungkinkan konfigurasi metode instalasi berbeda menggunakan format yang berbeda. Sintaksnya dijelaskan pada tabel di bawah ini.

    Table 1. Sumber Instalasi
    Installation source Option format

    Any CD/DVD drive

    inst.repo=cdrom

    Specific CD/DVD drive

    inst.repo=cdrom:device

    Hard Drive

    inst.repo=hd:device:/path

    HTTP Server

    inst.repo=http://host/path

    HTTPS Server

    inst.repo=https://host/path

    FTP Server

    inst.repo=ftp://username:password@host/path

    NFS Server

    inst.repo=nfs:[options:]server:/path [1]

    Nama perangkat disk dapat ditentukan menggunakan format berikut:

  • Nama perangkat kernel, sebagai contoh /dev/sda1 atau sdb2

  • Label file sistem, sebagai contoh LABEL=Flash atau LABEL=RHEL7

  • UUID file sistem, sebagai contoh UUID=8176c7bf-04ff-403a-a832-9557f94e61db

    Karakter non-alfanumerik harus direpresentasikan sebagai \xNN, di mana NN adalah representasi heksadesimal dari karakter tersebut. Misalnya, \ x20 adalah spasi putih ("").

inst.stage2=

Tentukan lokasi image runtime program instalasi yang akan dimuat. Sintaksnya sama seperti di Boot_Options.adoc#tabl-boot-options-sources. Opsi ini mencari jalur menuju direktori yang berisi file .treeinfo yang valid; lokasi image runtime akan dibaca dari file ini jika ditemukan. Jika file .treeinfo tidak tersedia, Anaconda akan mencoba memuat image dari LiveOS/squashfs.img.

Secara default, opsi boot ini digunakan pada media instalasi dan diset ke label tertentu (misalnya, inst.stage2=hd:LABEL=F21\x20Server.x86_64). Jika Anda mengubah label default sistem file yang berisi image runtime, Anda juga harus menyunting opsi ini agar cocok dengan label baru.

inst.stage2.all=

With this boot option, the stage 2 image will be fetched from HTTP, HTTPS and FTP locations which are specified using the inst.stage2= option sequentially in the order they are specified, until the image is successfully fetched. All other locations will be ignored.

inst.dd=

Jika Anda perlu melakukan pembaruan driver selama penginstalan, gunakan opsi[option]inst.dd=. Hal tersebut dapat dilakukan berkali-kali. Lokasi dari paket RPM driver dapat ditentukan menggunakan salah satu format yang dijelaskan di Boot_Options.adoc#tabl-boot-options-sources. Dengan pengecualian dari opsi inst.dd=cdrom, nama perangkat harus selalu ditentukan. Sebagai contoh:

inst.dd=hd:/dev/sdb1:/driver.rpm

Menggunakan opsi ini tanpa parameter apa pun (hanya sebagai inst.dd) akan membuat program instalasi meminta Anda untuk disk pembaruan driver dengan menu interaktif.

Anda tidak boleh melakukan pembaruan driver selama penginstalan kecuali jika driver bermasalah dan menghalangi Anda untuk menyelesaikan penginstalan. Memperbarui driver harus selalu dilakukan setelah sistem diinstal.

inst.askmethod

Cegah program instalasi dalam melakukan konfigurasi sumber penginstalan secara otomatis.

Normalnya saat Anda pertama kali masuk ke layar Installation Summary, program instalasi akan mencoba melakukan konfigurasi sumber instalasi berdasarkan jenis media yang Anda gunakan untuk boot. DVD Server Fedora lengkap akan melakukan konfigurasi sumber sebagai media lokal, image ISO netinst akan melakukan konfigurasi mirror jaringan terdekat, dll. Proses ini membutuhkan waktu; oleh karena itu, jika Anda berencana untuk menggunakan sumber yang berbeda dari default, opsi ini akan memungkinkan Anda untuk segera masuk ke layar Sumber Instalasi tanpa harus menunggu konfigurasi awal selesai.

Menggunakan opsi ini akan membuat konfigurasi sumber penginstalan dalam status galat - Anda harus menentukan sumber secara manual di layar Sumber Penginstalan untuk melanjutkan instalasi. Sebagai alternatif, Anda dapat menggunakan opsi inst.repo= yang dijelaskan di atas untuk melakukan konfigurasi sumber tertentu secara langsung di menu boot.

Opsi Boot Kickstart

inst.ks=

Memberikan lokasi file Kickstart yang akan digunakan untuk melakukan instalasi otomatis. Lokasi file dapat ditentukan dengan menggunakan salah satu format yang valid untuk inst.repo=. See Boot_Options.adoc#tabl-boot-options-sources untuk format yang valid.

Jika Anda hanya menentukan perangkat dan bukan jalurnya, program instalasi akan mencari file Kickstart di / ks.cfg pada perangkat yang ditentukan. Jika Anda menggunakan opsi ini tanpa menentukan perangkat, program instalasi akan menggunakan:

inst.ks=nfs:next-server:/filename

Pada contoh di atas, next-server adalah opsi DHCP next-server atau alamat IP dari DHCP server itu sendiri, dan filename adalah opsi DHCP` filename`, atau / kickstart /. Jika nama file yang diberikan diakhiri dengan karakter /, maka akan ditambahkan pass: atribut [] _ ip_-kickstart . Sebagai contoh:

Table 2. Lokasi Default File Kickstart
DHCP server address Client address Kickstart file location

192.168.122.1

192.168.122.100

192.168.122.1:/kickstart/192.168.122.100-kickstart

inst.ks.all=

With this boot option, the Kickstart file will be fetched from HTTP, HTTPS and FTP locations which are specified using the inst.ks= option sequentially in the order they are specified, until the file is successfully fetched. All other locations will be ignored.

inst.ks.sendmac

Menambahkan header ke permintaan HTTP keluar dengan alamat MAC dari semua antarmuka jaringan. Sebagai contoh:

X-RHN-Provisioning-MAC-0: eth0 01:23:45:67:89:ab

Ini dapat berguna saat menggunakan inst.ks=http ke sistem penyediaan.

inst.ks.sendsn

Tambahkan header pada permintaan HTTP keluar. Header ini akan berisi nomor seri sistem, dibaca dari /sys/class/dmi/id/product_serial. Header tersebut akan memiliki sintaks berikut:

X-System-Serial-Number: R8VA23D

Opsi Konsol, Lingkungan, dan Tampilan

console=

Opsi kernel ini menentukan perangkat yang akan digunakan sebagai konsol utama. Misalnya, untuk menggunakan konsol pada port serial pertama, gunakan console=ttyS0. Opsi ini harus digunakan bersama dengan opsi inst.text.

Anda dapat menggunakan opsi ini beberapa kali. Dalam hal ini, pesan boot akan ditampilkan di semua konsol yang ditentukan, tetapi hanya konsol terakhir yang akan digunakan oleh program instalasi setelahnya. Misalnya, jika Anda menentukan console=ttyS0 console=ttyS1, program instalasi hanya akan menggunakan ttyS1.

noshell

Nonaktifkan akses ke shell root selama instalasi. Hal ini berguna untuk instalasi otomatis (Kickstart) - jika Anda menggunakan opsi ini, pengguna dapat melihat kemajuan instalasi, tetapi mereka tidak dapat mengganggunya dengan mengakses shell root melalui Ctrl+Alt+F2.

inst.lang=

Sets the language to be used during the installation. Language codes are the same as the ones used in the lang Kickstart command as described in lang (optional) - Configure Language During Installation. On systems where the system-config-language package is installed, a list of valid values can also be find in /usr/share/system-config-language/locale-list.

Jika Anda melakukan instalasi secara interaktif, bahasa yang Anda tentukan menggunakan opsi ini akan dipilih secara default, tetapi Anda masih dapat mengubahnya di awal instalasi grafis.

inst.singlelang

Izinkan Anda menjalankan instalasi dalam mode satu bahasa - dengan kata lain, opsi ini menonaktifkan pemilihan bahasa untuk penginstal dan sistem yang diinstal. Jika Anda juga menggunakan opsi inst.lang= secara bersamaan, bahasa yang Anda tentukan akan digunakan. Jika Anda tidak mengatur bahasa, Anaconda dan sistem yang diinstal akan default ke en-US.UTF-8.

inst.geoloc=

Lakukan konfigutasi penggunaan geolokasi dalam program instalasi. Geolokasi digunakan untuk mengatur bahasa dan zona waktu sebelumnya, dan menggunakan sintaks berikut: inst.geoloc=value

Parameter value dapat berupa salah satu dari yang tercantum di daftar berikut ini:

Table 3. Nilai Valid untuk Opsi inst.geoloc

Nonaktifkan geolokasi

inst.geoloc=0

Gunakan Fedora GeoIP API

inst.geoloc=provider_fedora_geoip

Gunakan Hostip.info GeoIP API

inst.geoloc=provider_hostip

Jika opsi ini tidak ditentukan, Anaconda akan menggunakan provider_fedora_geoip.

inst.keymap=

Specifies the keyboard layout to be used by the installation program. Layout codes are the same as the ones used in the keyboard Kickstart command as described in Kickstart Syntax Reference.

inst.text

Paksa program instalasi untuk berjalan dalam mode teks dibandingkan mode grafis. Antarmuka pengguna teks terbatas, misalnya, tidak memungkinkan Anda untuk mengubah tata letak partisi atau mengatur LVM. Saat memasang sistem pada mesin dengan kemampuan grafis terbatas, disarankan untuk menggunakan VNC seperti yang dijelaskan dalam Boot_Options.adoc#sect-boot-options-vnc.

inst.cmdline

Paksa program instalasi untuk berjalan dalam mode baris perintah. Mode ini tidak mengizinkan interaksi apa pun, semua opsi harus ditentukan dalam file Kickstart atau pada baris perintah.

inst.graphical

Paksa program instalasi untuk berjalan dalam mode grafis. Ini adalah mode default.

inst.resolution=

Tentukan resolusi layar dalam mode grafis. Formatnya adalah NxM, dengan N adalah lebar layar dan M adalah tinggi layar (dalam piksel). Resolusi terendah yang didukung adalah 800x600.

inst.xdriver=

Tentukan nama driver X yang akan digunakan selama instalasi dan pada sistem yang akan diinstal.

inst.usefbx

Arahkan program instalasi untuk menggunakan frame buffer X driver daripada menggunakan driver khusus perangkat keras. Opsi ini setara dengan inst.xdriver=fbdev.

inst.xtimeout=

Specifies a timeout period (in seconds) the installer will wait before starting the X server.

modprobe.blacklist=

Masukkan satu driver atau lebih ke dalam daftar hitam (nonaktifkan sepenuhnya). Driver (mods) yang dinonaktifkan menggunakan opsi ini akan dicegah untuk memuat saat instalasi dimulai, dan setelah instalasi selesai, sistem yang terinstal akan menyimpan setelan ini. Driver yang masuk daftar hitam kemudian dapat ditemukan di direktori /etc/modprobe.d/.

Gunakan daftar yang dipisahkan koma untuk menonaktifkan beberapa driver. Sebagai contoh:

modprobe.blacklist=ahci,firewire_ohci
inst.sshd

Starts the sshd service during the installation, which allows you to connect to the system during the installation using SSH and monitor its progress. For more information on SSH, see the ssh(1) man page and the corresponding chapter in the Fedora System Administrator’s Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/.

During the installation, the root account has no password by default. You can set a root password to be used during the installation with the sshpw Kickstart command as described in sshpw (optional) - Restrict ssh Access During Installation.

inst.decorated=

Starting with Fedora 27, the graphical installer window has no decorations. Use this option to enable window decorations again.

Opsi Boot Jaringan

Initial network initialization is handled by dracut. This section only lists some of the more commonly used options; for a complete list, see the dracut.cmdline(7) man page. Additional information on networking is also available in the Fedora Networking Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/.

ip=

Configures one or more network interfaces. To configure multiple interfaces, use the ip option multiple times - once for each interface. If multiple interfaces are configured, you must specify a primary boot interface using the bootdev option described below.

The following table lists valid values for this option:

Table 4. Network Interface Configuration Formats
Configuration Method Option format

Automatic configuration of any interface

ip=method

Automatic configuration of a specific interface

ip=interface:method

Static configuration

ip=ip::gateway:netmask:hostname:interface:none

Automatic configuration of a specific interface with an override [2]

ip=ip::gateway:netmask:hostname:interface:method:mtu

The method parameter can be any the following:

Table 5. Automatic Interface Configuration Methods
Automatic configuration method Value

DHCP

dhcp

IPv6 DHCP

dhcp6

IPv6 automatic configuration

auto6

iBFT (iSCSI Boot Firmware Table)

ibft

If you use a boot option which requires network access, such as inst.ks=http://host:/path, without specifying the ip option, the installation program will use ip=dhcp.

In the above tables, the ip parameter specifies the client’s IP address. IPv6 addresses can be specified by putting them in square brackets, for example, [2001:DB8::1].

The gateway parameter is the default gateway. IPv6 addresses are accepted here as well.

The netmask parameter is the netmask to be used. This can either be a full netmask (for example 255.255.255.0) or a prefix (for example 64).

The hostname parameter is the host name of the client system. This parameter is optional.

nameserver=

Specifies the address of the name server. This option can be used multiple times.

bootdev=

Specifies the boot interface. This option is mandatory if you use more than one ip option.

ifname=

Assigns a given interface name to a network device with a given MAC address. Can be used multiple times. The syntax is ifname=interface:MAC. For example:

ifname=eth0:01:23:45:67:89:ab
inst.dhcpclass=

Specifies the DHCP vendor class identifier. The dhcpd service will see this value as vendor-class-identifier. The default value is anaconda-$(uname -srm).

vlan=

Sets up a Virtual LAN (VLAN) device on a specified interface with a given name. The syntax is vlan=name:interface. For example:

vlan=vlan5:em1

The above will set up a VLAN device named vlan5 on the em1 interface. The name can take the following forms:

Table 6. VLAN Device Naming Conventions
Naming scheme Example

VLAN_PLUS_VID

vlan0005

VLAN_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD

vlan5

DEV_PLUS_VID

em1.0005.

DEV_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD

em1.5.

bond=

Set up a bonding device with the following syntax: bond=name[:slaves][:options]. Replace name with the bonding device name, slaves with a comma-separated list of physical (ethernet) interfaces, and options with a comma-separated list of bonding options. For example:

bond=bond0:em1,em2:mode=active-backup,tx_queues=32,downdelay=5000

For a list of available options, execute the modinfo bonding command.

Using this option without any parameters will assume bond=bond0:eth0,eth1:mode=balance-rr.

team=

Set up a team device with the following syntax: team=master:slaves. Replace master with the name of the master team device and slaves with a comma-separated list of physical (ethernet) devices to be used as slaves in the team device. For example:

team=team0:em1,em2

Opsi Instalasi Tingkat Lanjut

inst.multilib

Configure the system for multilib packages (that is, to allow installing 32-bit packages on a 64-bit x86 system) and install packages specified in this section as such.

Normally, on an AMD64 or Intel 64 system, only packages for this architecture (marked as x86_64) and packages for all architectures (marked as noarch would be installed. When you use this option, packages for 32-bit AMD or Intel systems (marked as i686) will be automatically installed as well if available.

This only applies to packages directly specified in the %packages section. If a package is only installed as a dependency, only the exact specified dependency will be installed. For example, if you are installing package foo which depends on package bar, the former will be installed in multiple variants, while the latter will only be installed in variants specifically required.

inst.gpt

Force the installation program to install partition information into a GUID Partition Table (GPT) instead of a Master Boot Record (MBR). This option is meaningless on UEFI-based systems, unless they are in BIOS compatibility mode.

Normally, BIOS-based systems and UEFI-based systems in BIOS compatibility mode will attempt to use the MBR schema for storing partitioning information, unless the disk is larger than 2 TB. Using this option will change this behavior, allowing a GPT to be written even to disks smaller than 2 TB.

See Recommended Partitioning Scheme for more information about GPT and MBR, and GUID Partition Table (GPT) for more general information about GPT, MBR and disk partitioning in general.

inst.nosave=

This option controls which Kickstart files and installation logs are saved to the installed system. It can be especially useful to disable saving such data when performing OEM operating system installations, or when generating images using sensitive resources (such as internal repository URLs), as these resources might otherwise be mentioned in kickstart files and/or logs on the image. Possible values for this option are:

input_ks - disables saving of the input Kickstart file (if any).

output_ks - disables saving of the output Kickstart file generated by Anaconda.

all_ks - disables saving of both input and output Kickstart files.

logs - disables saving of all installation logs.

all - disables saving of all Kickstart files and all installation logs.

Multiple values can be combined as a comma separated list, for example: input_ks,logs

inst.zram

This option controls the usage of zRAM swap during the installation. It creates a compressed block device inside the system RAM and uses it for swap space instead of the hard drive. This allows the installer to essentially increase the amount of memory available, which makes the installation faster on systems with low memory.

By default, swap on zRAM is enabled on systems with 2 GB or less RAM, and disabled on systems with more than 2 GB of memory. You can use this option to change this behavior - on a system with more than 2 GB RAM, use inst.zram=1 to enable it, and on systems with 2 GB or less memory, use inst.zram=0 to disable this feature.

inst.memcheck

Perform a check at the beginning of the installation to determine if there is enough available RAM. If there is not enough memory detected, the installation will stop with an error message. This option is enabled by default; use inst.memcheck=0 to disable it.

inst.nodnf

Use the older Yum backend for package installation and dependency resolution instead of DNF. See the Fedora System Administrator’s Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/, for details about DNF.

inst.kdump_addon=

Turns the Kdump installer add-on on or off (the add-on is off by default). If you use inst.kdump_addon=on, a new screen, which allows you to configure the Kdump kernel crash dumping mechanism, will appear in the main menu of the graphical or text interface (see Kdump). Enabling this add-on is also necessary to use the %addon com_redhat_kdump (optional) - Configure kdump Kickstart command.

Enabling Remote Access Using VNC

The following options are necessary to configure Anaconda for remote graphical installation. See Installing Using VNC for more details.

inst.vnc

Specifies that the installation program’s graphical interface should be run in a VNC session. If you specify this option, you will need to connect to the system using a VNC client application to be able to interact with the installation program. VNC sharing is enabled, so multiple clients can connect to the system at the same time.

A system installed using VNC will start in text mode by default.

inst.vncpassword=

VNC server used by the installation program. Any VNC client attempting to connect to the system will have to provide the correct password to gain access. For example, inst.vncpassword=testpwd will set the password to testpwd. The password must be between 6 and 8 characters long.

If you specify an invalid password (one that is too short or too long), you will be prompted to specify a new one by a message from the installation program:

Panjang kata sandi VNC harus 6 sampai 8 karakter.
Silakan masukkan yang baru, atau kosongkan jika tanpa kata sandi.

Kata Sandi:
inst.vncconnect=

Connect to a listening VNC client at a specified host and port once the installation starts. The correct syntax is inst.vncconnect=host:port. The port parameter is optional - if you do not specify one, the installation program will use 5900.

Debugging and Troubleshooting

inst.updates=

Specifies the location of the updates.img file to be applied to the installation program runtime. The syntax is the same as in the inst.repo option - see Boot_Options.adoc#tabl-boot-options-sources for details. In all formats, if you do not specify a file name but only a directory, the installation program will look for a file named updates.img.

inst.loglevel=

Specifies the minimum level for messages to be logged on a terminal. This only concerns real-time logging in a terminal; log files will always contain messages of all levels.

Possible values for this option from the lowest to highest level are: debug, info, warning, error and critical. The default value is info, which means that by default, the logging terminal will display messages ranging from info to critical, but not debug.

inst.syslog=

Once the installation starts, this option sends log messages to the syslog process on the specified host. The remote syslog process must be configured to accept incoming connections.

inst.virtiolog=

Specifies a virtio port (a character device at /dev/virtio-ports/name) to be used for forwarding logs. The default value is org.fedoraproject.anaconda.log.0; if this port is present, it will be used.

Deprecated Boot Options

Options in this list are deprecated. They will still work, but there are other options which offer the same functionality and should be preferred. Using deprecated options is not recommended and they are expected to be removed in future releases.

Note that as described in the introduction to this chapter, options specific to the installation program now use the inst. prefix. For example, the vnc= option is considered deprecated and replaced by the inst.vnc= option. However, these changes are not listed here.

inst.headless

Used to specify that the machine being installed onto does not have any display hardware, and to prevent the installer from trying to detect a display.

method=

Configured the installation method. Use the inst.repo= option instead.

repo=nfsiso:server:/path

In NFS installations, specified that the target is an ISO image located on an NFS server instead of an installable tree. The difference is now detected automatically, which means this option is the same as inst.repo=nfs:server:/path.

dns=

Configured the Domain Name Server (DNS). Use the nameserver= option instead.

netmask=, gateway=, hostname=, ip=, ipv6=

These options have been consolidated under the ip= option.

ksdevice=

Select network device to be used at early stage of installation. Different values have been replaced with different options; see the table below.

Table 7. Automatic Interface Configuration Methods
Value Current behavior

Not present

All devices are attempted to be activated using dhcp, unless desired device and configuration is specified by ip= option and/or the BOOTIF option.

ksdevice=link

Similar to the above, with the difference that network will always be activated in the initramfs, whether it is needed or not. The supported rd.neednet option (provided by dracut) should be used instead.

ksdevice=bootif

Ignored (the BOOTID= option is used by default when specified)

ksdevice=ibft

Replaced with the ip=ibft option

ksdevice=MAC

Replaced with BOOTIF=MAC

ksdevice=device

Replaced by specifying the device name using the ip= option.

When performing a Kickstart installation, booting from local media and having the Kickstart file on local media as well, the network will not be initialized. This means that any other Kickstart options requiring network access, such as pre-installation or post-installation scripts accessing a network location, will cause the installation to fail. This is a known issue; see BZ#1085310 for details.

To work around this issue, either use the ksdevice=link boot option, or add the --device=link option to the network command in your Kickstart file.

blacklist=

Used to disable specified drivers. This is now handled by the modprobe.blacklist= option.

nofirewire=

Disabled support for the FireWire interface. You can disable the FireWire driver (firewire_ohci) by using the modprobe.blacklist= option instead:

modprobe.blacklist=firewire_ohci

Removed Boot Options

The following options are removed. They were present in previous releases of Fedora, but they cannot be used anymore.

asknetwork

The installation program’s initramfs is now completely non-interactive, which means that this option are not available anymore. Use ip= to configure network settings.

serial

This option forced Anaconda to use the /dev/ttyS0 console as the output. Use the console=/dev/ttyS0 (or similar) instead.

updates=

Specified the location of updates for the installation program. Use the inst.updates= option instead.

essid=, wepkey=, wpakey=

Configured wireless network access. Network configuration is now being handled by dracut, which does not support wireless networking, rendering these options useless.

ethtool=

Used in the past to configure additional low-level network settings. All network settings are now handled by the ip= option.

gdb

Allowed you to debug the loader. Use rd.debug instead.

mediacheck

Verified the installation media before starting the installation. Replaced with the rd.live.check option.

ks=floppy

Specified a floppy disk as the Kickstart file source. Floppy drives are not supported anymore.

display=

Configured a remote display. Replaced with the inst.vnc option.

utf8

Added UTF8 support when installing in text mode. UTF8 support now works automatically.

noipv6

Used to disable IPv6 support in the installation program. IPv6 is now built into the kernel so the driver cannot be blacklisted; however, it is possible to disable IPv6 using the ipv6.disable option.

upgradeany

Upgrades are done in a different way in current Fedora releases. For more information about upgrading your system, see Upgrading Your Current System.

vlanid=

Used to configure Virtual LAN (802.1q tag) devices. Use the vlan= option instead.

inst.dnf

Used to enable DNF to handle package installation and dependency resolution in Fedora 21. DNF is now used by default and this option has been replaced with inst.nodnf, which reverts back to Yum.

Using the Maintenance Boot Modes

Loading the Memory (RAM) Testing Mode

Faults in memory (RAM) modules may cause your system to freeze or crash unpredictably. In some cases, memory faults may only cause errors with particular combinations of software. For this reason, you should test the memory of a computer before you install Fedora for the first time, even if it has previously run other operating systems.

Fedora includes the Memtest86+ memory testing application. To start memory testing mode, choose Troubleshooting > Memory test at the boot menu. Testing will begin immediately. By default, Memtest86+ carries out ten tests in every pass; a different configuration can be specified by accessing the configuration screen using the c key. After the first pass completes, a message will appear at the bottom informing you of the current status, and another pass will start automatically.

Memtest86+ only works on systems with BIOS firmware. Support for UEFI systems is currently unavailable.

Memtest86+ testing the system memory
Figure 1. Memory Check Using Memtest86+

The main screen displayed while testing is in progress is divided into three main areas:

  • The upper left corner shows information about your system’s memory configuration - the amount of detected memory and processor cache and their throughputs and processor and chipset information. This information is detected when Memtest86+ starts.

  • The upper right corner displays information about the tests - progress of the current pass and the currently running test in that pass as well as a description of the test.

  • The central part of the screen is used to display information about the entire set of tests from the moment when the tool has started, such as the total time, the number of completed passes, number of detected errors and your test selection. On some systems, detailed information about the installed memory (such as the number of installed modules, their manufacturer, frequency and latency) will be also displayed here. After the each pass completes, a short summary will appear in this location. For example:

     Pass complete, no errors, press Esc to exit 

    If Memtest86+ detects an error, it will also be displayed in this area and highlighted red. The message will include detailed information such as which test detected a problem, the memory location which is failing, and others.

In most cases, a single successful pass (that is, a single run of all 10 tests) is sufficient to verify that your RAM is in good condition. In some rare circumstances, however, errors that went undetected on the first pass might appear on subsequent passes. To perform a thorough test on an important system, leave the tests running overnight or even for a few days in order to complete multiple passes.

The amount of time it takes to complete a single full pass of Memtest86+ varies depending on your system’s configuration (notably the RAM size and speed). For example, on a system with 2 GB of DDR2 memory at 667 MHz, a single pass will take roughly 20 minutes to complete.

To halt the tests and reboot your computer, press the Esc key at any time.

For more information about using Memtest86+, see the official website at https://www.memtest.org/. A README file is also located in /usr/share/doc/memtest86+-version/ on Fedora systems with the memtest86+ package installed.

Verifying Boot Media

You can test the integrity of an ISO-based installation source before using it to install Fedora. These sources include DVDs and ISO images stored on a local hard drive or NFS server. Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation helps to avoid problems that are often encountered during installation.

To test the integrity of an ISO image, append the rd.live.check to the boot loader command line. Note that this option is used automatically if you select the default installation option from the boot menu (Test this media & install Fedora).

Booting Your Computer in Rescue Mode

You may boot a command-line Linux system from an installation disc without actually installing Fedora on the computer. This enables you to use the utilities and functions of a running Linux system to modify or repair already installed operating systems.

To load the rescue system with the installation disk or USB drive, choose Rescue a Fedora system from the Troubleshooting submenu in the boot menu, or use the inst.rescue boot option.

Specify the language, keyboard layout and network settings for the rescue system with the screens that follow. The final setup screen configures access to the existing system on your computer.

By default, rescue mode attaches an existing operating system to the rescue system under the directory /mnt/sysimage/.


1. This option uses NFS protocol version 3 by default. To use a different version, add +nfsvers=X to options.
2. Brings up the specified interface using the specified method of automatic configuration, such as dhcp, but overrides the automatically obtained IP address, gateway, netmask, hostname or other specified parameter. All parameters are optional; only specify the ones you wish to override and automatically obtained values will be used for the others.