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E.4.3. The Root File System and GRUB

GRUB で言うルートファイルシステムは違う意味の用語になります。GRUB のルートファイルシステムは Linux のルートファイルシステムとは無関係であると覚えておいてください。
The GRUB root file system is the top level of the specified device. For example, the image file (hd1,1)/grub/splash.xpm.gz is located within the /grub/ directory at the top-level (or root) of the (hd1,1) partition (which is actually the /boot/ partition for the system).
Next, the linux command is executed with the location of the kernel file as an option. Once the Linux kernel boots, it sets up the root file system that Linux users are familiar with. The original GRUB root file system and its mounts are forgotten; they only existed to boot the kernel file.
Refer to the root and linux commands in 「GRUB Commands」 for more information.