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문제 해결

이 장에서는 잘못된 문제가 발생했을 때에도 도움을 받을 수 있는 방법에 대해 몇 가지 제안을 제공합니다. 이는 또한 몇 가지 공통적인 설치 문제와 이들 해결 방법에 대해 설명합니다.

도움 받기

이 장에서 설명하지 않은 문제에 직면 하였을 때에 자신에게 도움을 줄 수 있는 인터넷에 많은 웹주소가 있습니다: 토론 게시판, 블로그, IRC 등. 다음을 포함하여 도움을 찾을 수 있는 몇몇 인기 있는 웹주소:

위의 목록은 완료된 것을 의미하지 않습니다 - 당신은 많은 다른 장소에서도 도움을 찾을 수 있습니다. IRC 채널과 전자우편 목록과 같은 사용 가능한 자원에 대한 추가 정보는 의사소통 및 도움 받기에서 사용 할 수 있습니다.

당신은 새로운 토론을 시작하거나 IRC에서 도움을 요청하기 전에, 당신은 항상 자기 스스로 조사해야 합니다. 만약 당신이 문제에 직면한 경우에, 이는 일반적으로 다른 누군가 전에 동일한 문제에 빠져 어느 곳에 해결책을 게시했을 가능성이 높습니다. 다른 곳에서 이미 설명된 것에 대하여 토론을 시작하거나, 전에 여러 번 답변 된 일반적인 질문을 하는 것은, 우호적이고, 건설적인 응답으로 귀결되지는 않는 것 같습니다.

당신이 설치와 관련된 문제 해결 도움을 요청 할 때에, 당신은 설치자에 의해 발생된 기록 파일을 제공하도록 요청될 수 있습니다. 아래 부분은 파일이 생성된 것, 이들 내용이 어떤 것인지, 그리고 설치 시스템에서 이를 전송하는 방법에 대해 설명합니다.

설치 중에 생성된 로그 파일

For debugging purposes, Anaconda logs installation actions into files in the /tmp directory. These files are listed in the following table.

Table 1. 로그 파일과 그 내용
로그 파일 내용

/tmp/anaconda.log

general Anaconda messages

/tmp/program.log

all external programs run during the installation

/tmp/storage.log

extensive storage module information

/tmp/packaging.log

dnf and rpm package installation messages

/tmp/syslog

hardware-related system messages

만약 설치에 실패하면, 이들 파일에서 메시지가 `/tmp/anaconda-tb-identifier`로 통합되었으며, 여기서 _식별자_는 임의의 문자열입니다.

설치 시스템에서 로그 파일 전송하기

All of the files described in Log Files Generated During the Installation reside in the installation program’s RAM disk, which means they are not saved permamently and will be lost once the system is powered down. To store them permanently, copy those files to another system on the network using scp on the system running the installation program, or copy them to a mounted storage device (such as an USB flash drive). Details on how to transfer the log files are below. Note that if you use an USB flash drive or other removable media, you should make sure to back up any data on it before starting the procedure.

USB 드라이브로 로그 파일을 전송

  1. 시스템에서 설치 할 때에, Ctrl+Alt+F2를 눌러서 쉘 입력기에 접근하세요. 루트 계정으로 로그인 할 수 있고 설치 프로그램의 임시 파일 시스템으로 접근 할 수 있습니다.

  2. Connect a USB flash drive to the system and execute the dmesg command. A log detailing all recent events will be displayed. At the bottom of this log, you will see a set of messages caused by the USB flash drive you just connected. It will look like a set of lines similar to the following:

    [  170.171135] sd 5:0:0:0: [sdb] 부착된 SCSI 제거 할 수 있는 디스크

    연결된 장치의 이름을 기록합니다 - 위의 예제에서, 이는 `sdb`입니다.

  3. Go to the /mnt directory and once there, create new directory which will serve as the mount target for the USB drive. The name of the directory does not matter; this example uses the name usb.

    # mkdir usb
  4. Mount the USB flash drive onto the newly created directory. Note that in most cases, you do not want to mount the whole drive, but a partition on it. Therefore, do not use the name sdb - use the name of the partition you want to write the log files to. In this example, the name sdb1 is used.

    # mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/usb

    당신은 이제 접근하고 이와 같은 내용을 나열에 의하여 올바른 장치와 파티션을 적재했는지 확인 할 수 있습니다 - 목록은 드라이브에서 있을 것으로 예상하는 것과 일치해야만 합니다.

    # cd /mnt/usb
    # ls
  5. 적재 된 장치에 로그 파일을 복사합니다.

    # cp /tmp/*log /mnt/usb
  6. USB 플래쉬 드라이브를 내려 놓습니다. 만약 대상이 바쁘다는 것을 말하는 오류가 보이면, 적재 지점 밖으로 동작 중인 디렉토리를 변경합니다 (예를 들면, /).

    # umount /mnt/usb

설치에서 로그 파일은 이제 USB 플래쉬 드라이브에 저장됩니다.

네트워크를 통해 로그 파일을 전송하기

  1. 시스템에서 설치 할 때에, Ctrl+Alt+F2를 눌러서 쉘 입력기에 접근하세요. 루트 계정으로 로그인 할 수 있고 설치 프로그램의 임시 파일 시스템으로 접근 할 수 있습니다.

  2. 로그 파일이 위치하는 /tmp 디렉토리로 전환합니다:

    # cd /tmp
  3. scp 명령을 사용하여 네트워크에서 다른 시스템에 로그 파일을 복사합니다:

    # scp *log user@address:path

    Replace user with a valid user name on the target system, address with the target system’s address or host name, and path with the path to the directory you wish to save the log files into. For example, if you want to log in as john to a system with an IP address of 192.168.0.122 and place the log files into the /home/john/logs/ directory on that system, the command will have the following form:

    # scp *log john@192.168.0.122:/home/john/logs/

    대상 시스템에 처음 연결 할 때에, 다음과 유사한 메시지가 나타날 수 있습니다:

    The authenticity of host '192.168.0.122 (192.168.0.122)' can't be established.
    ECDSA key fingerprint is a4:60:76:eb:b2:d0:aa:23:af:3d:59:5c:de:bb:c4:42.
    Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?

    Type yes and press Enter to continue. Then, provide a valid password when prompted. The files will start transferring to the specified directory on the target system.

설치에서 로그 파일은 이제 대상 시스템에 영구적으로 저장되고 검토 할 수 있습니다.

설치 시작 문제

그래픽 설치에서 부팅 할 때에 발생 문제

Systems with some video cards have trouble booting into the graphical installation program. If the installation program does not run using its default settings, it attempts to run in a lower resolution mode. If that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text mode.

There are several possible solutions to display issues, most of which involve specifying custom boot options. For more information, see Configuring the Installation System at the Boot Menu.

기본적인 그래픽 방법 사용

You can attempt to perform the installation using the basic graphics driver. To do this, edit the installation program’s boot options and append inst.xdriver=vesa at the end of the command line.

표시 해상도를 수동으로 지정합니다

If the installation program fails to detect your screen resolution, you can override the automatic detection and specify it manually. To do this, append the inst.resolution=x option at the boot menu, where x is your display’s resolution (for example, 1024x768).

대체 비디오 드라이버 사용

You can also attempt to specify a custom video driver, overriding the installation program’s automatic detection. To specify a driver, use the inst.xdriver=x option, where x is the device driver you want to use (for example, nouveau).

If specifying a custom video driver solves your problem, you should report it as a bug at https://bugzilla.redhat.com under the anaconda component. Anaconda should be able to detect your hardware automatically and use the appropriate driver without your intervention.

VNC 사용하여 설치를 수행합니다

If the above options fail, you can use a separate system to access the graphical installation over the network, using the Virtual Network Computing (VNC) protocol. For details on installing using VNC, see Installing Using VNC.

직렬 콘솔이 탐지되지 않았습니다

In some cases, attempting to install in text mode using a serial console will result in no output on the console. This happens on systems which have a graphics card, but no monitor connected. If Anaconda detects a graphics card, it will attempt to use it for a display, even if no display is connected.

If you want to perform a text-based installation on a serial console, use the inst.text and console= boot options. See Boot Options for more details.

설치 할 때에 문제

탐지된 디스크가 없습니다

In the Installation Destination screen, the following error message may appear at the bottom: No disks detected. Please shut down the computer, connect at least one disk, and restart to complete installation.

The message indicates that Anaconda did not find any writable storage devices to install to. In that case, first make sure that your system does have at least one storage device attached.

If your system uses a hardware RAID controller, verify that the controller is properly configured and working. See your controller’s documentation for instructions.

If you are installing into one or more iSCSI devices and there is no local storage present on the system, make sure that all required LUNs (Logical Unit Numbers) are being presented to the appropriate HBA (Host Bus Adapter).

If you made sure you have a connected and properly configured storage device and the message still appears after you reboot the system and start the installation again, it means that the installation program failed to detect the storage. In most cases this message appears when you attempt to install on an SCSI device which has not been recognized by the installation program.

Problems After Installation

root 비밀번호 재설정하기

If you lost the root password to the system and you have access to the boot loader, you can reset the password by editing the GRUB2 configuration.

root 비밀번호 재설정하기
  1. 자신의 시스템을 부팅하고 GRUB2 메뉴가 나타날 때까지 기다리세요.

  2. 부트로더 메뉴에서, 강조된 항목에서 이를 편집하기 위해 e 를 눌러주세요.

  3. `linux`로 시작하는 줄을 찾습니다. 이 줄 끝에서, 다음을 추가합니다:

    init=/bin/sh
  4. Press F10 or Ctrl+X to boot the system using the options you just edited.

    Once the system boots, you will be presented with a shell prompt without having to enter any user name or password:

    sh-4.2#
  5. Load the installed SELinux policy:

    sh-4.2# /usr/sbin/load_policy -i
  6. Execute the following command to remount your root partition:

    sh4.2# mount -o remount,rw /
  7. root 비밀번호 재지정:

    sh4.2# passwd root

    When prompted to, enter your new root password and confirm by pressing the Enter key. Enter the password for the second time to make sure you typed it correctly and confirm with Enter again. If both passwords match, a message informing you of a successful root password change will appear.

  8. Remount the root partition again, this time as read-only:

    sh4.2# mount -o remount,ro /
  9. Reboot the system. From now on, you will be able to log in as the root user using the new password set up during this procedure.

Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?

If you have performed an installation and cannot boot your system properly, you may need to reinstall and partition your system’s storage differently.

Some BIOS types do not support booting from RAID cards. After you finish the installation and reboot the system for the first time, a text-based screen showing the boot loader prompt (for example, grub>) and a flashing cursor may be all that appears. If this is the case, you must repartition your system and move your /boot partition and the boot loader outside the RAID array. The /boot partition and the boot loader must be on the same drive.

Once these changes have been made, you should be able to finish your installation and boot the system properly. For more information about partitioning, see Installation Destination.

Trouble With the Graphical Boot Sequence

After you finish the installation and reboot your system for the first time, it is possible that the system stops responding during the graphical boot sequence, requiring a reset. In this case, the boot loader is displayed successfully, but selecting any entry and attempting to boot the system results in a halt. This usually means a problem with the graphical boot sequence; to solve this issue, you must disable graphical boot. To do this, temporarily alter the setting at boot time before changing it permanently.

Disabling Graphical Boot Temporarily
  1. Start your computer and wait until the boot loader menu appears. If you set your boot loader timeout period to 0, hold down the Esc key to access it.

  2. When the boot loader menu appears, use your cursor keys to highlight the entry you want to boot and press the e key to edit this entry’s options.

  3. In the list of options, find the kernel line - that is, the line beginning with the keyword linux (or, in some cases, linux16 or linuxefi). On this line, locate the rhgb option and delete it. The option may not be immediately visible; use the cursor keys to scroll up and down.

  4. Press F10 or Ctrl+X to boot your system with the edited options.

If the system started successfully, you can log in normally. Then you will need to disable the graphical boot permanently - otherwise you will have to perform the previous procedure every time the system boots. To permanently change boot options, do the following.

Disabling Graphical Boot Permanently
  1. Log in to the root account using the su - command:

    $ su -
  2. Open the /etc/default/grub configuration file using a plain text editor such as vim.

  3. Within the grub file, locate the line beginning with GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX. The line should look similar to the following:

    GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="rd.lvm.lv=rhel/root rd.md=0 rd.dm=0 vconsole.keymap=us $([ -x /usr/sbin/rhcrashkernel-param ] && /usr/sbin/rhcrashkernel-param || :) rd.luks=0 vconsole.font=latarcyrheb-sun16 rd.lvm.lv=vg_rhel/swap rhgb quiet"

    On this line, delete the rhgb option.

  4. Save the edited configuration file.

  5. Refresh the boot loader configuration by executing the following command:

    # grub2-mkconfig --output=/boot/grub2/grub.cfg

After you finish this procedure, you can reboot your computer. Fedora will not use the graphical boot sequence any more. If you wish to enable graphical boot, follow the same procedure, add the rhgb option to the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX line in the /etc/default/grub file and refresh the boot loader configuration again using the grub2-mkconfig command.

See the Fedora System Administrator’s Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/, for more information about working with the GRUB2 boot loader.

Booting into a Graphical Environment

If you have installed the X Window System and a desktop environment such as GNOME, but are not seeing a graphical desktop environment once you log into your system, you can start it manually using the startx command. Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for future log ins.

To set up your system so that you can log in at a graphical login screen, you must change the default systemd target to graphical.target. When you are finished, reboot the computer. You will presented with a graphical login prompt after the system restarts.

Setting Graphical Login as Default
  1. Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su - command.

  2. Change the default target to graphical.target. To do this, execute the following command:

    # systemctl set-default graphical.target

Graphical login is now enabled by default - you will be presented with a graphical login prompt after the next reboot. If you want to reverse this change and keep using the text-based login prompt, execute the following command as root:

# systemctl set-default multi-user.target

For more information about targets in systemd, see the Fedora System Administrator’s Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/.

No Graphical User Interface Present

If you are having trouble getting X (the X Window System) to start, it is possible that it has not been installed. Some of the pre-set base environments you can select during the installation, such as Minimal install or Web Server, do not include a graphical interface - it has to be installed manually.

If you want X, you can install the necessary packages after the installation using the DNF package manager. For example, to install GNOME, use dnf install gnome-shell as root.

X Server Crashing After User Logs In

If you are having trouble with the X server crashing when a user logs in, one or more of your file systems may be full (or nearly full). To verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, execute the following command:

$ df -h

The output will help you diagnose which partition is full - in most cases, the problem will be on the /home partition. A sample output of the df command may look similar to the following:

Filesystem                                  Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/vg_rhel-root                     20G  6.0G   13G  32% /
devtmpfs                                    1.8G     0  1.8G   0% /dev
tmpfs                                       1.8G  2.7M  1.8G   1% /dev/shm
tmpfs                                       1.8G 1012K  1.8G   1% /run
tmpfs                                       1.8G     0  1.8G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
tmpfs                                       1.8G  2.6M  1.8G   1% /tmp
/dev/sda1                                   976M  150M  760M  17% /boot
/dev/dm-4                                    90G   90G     0 100% /home

In the above example, you can see that the /home partition is full, which causes the crash. You can make some room on the partition by removing unneeded files. After you free up some disk space, start X using the startx command.

For additional information about df and an explanation of the options available (such as the -h option used in this example), see the df(1) man page.

Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?

In some cases the kernel does not recognize all of your memory (RAM), which causes the system to use less memory than is installed. You can find out how much RAM is being utilized using the free -m command. If the displayed total amount of memory does not match your expectations, it is likely that at least one of your memory modules is faulty. On BIOS-based systems, you can use the Memtest86+ utility to test your system’s memory - see Loading the Memory (RAM) Testing Mode for details.

If you have 4GB or more memory installed, but Fedora only shows around 3.5GB or 3.7GB, you have probably installed a 32-bit version of Fedora on a 64bit kernel. For modern systems, use the 64-bit (x86_64) version.

Some hardware configurations have a part of the system’s RAM reserved and unavailable to the main system. Notably, laptop computers with integrated graphics cards will reserve some memory for the GPU. For example, a laptop with 4 GB of RAM and an integrated Intel graphics card will show only roughly 3.7 GB of available memory, even with a 64-bit system.

Additionally, the kdump crash kernel dumping mechanism reserves some memory for the secondary kernel used in case of the primary kernel crashing. This reserved memory will also not be displayed as available when using the free command. For details about kdump and its memory requirements, see the Fedora System Administrator’s Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/.

If you made sure that your memory does not have any issues, you can try and set the amount of memory manually using the mem= kernel option.

Configuring the Memory Manually
  1. Start your computer and wait until the boot loader menu appears. If you set your boot loader timeout period to 0, hold down the Esc key to access it.

  2. When the boot loader menu appears, use your cursor keys to highlight the entry you want to boot and press the e key to edit this entry’s options.

  3. In the list of options, find the kernel line - that is, the line beginning with the keyword linux (or, in some cases, linux16). Append the following option to the end of this line:

    mem=xxM

    Replace xx with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes.

  4. Press F10 or Ctrl+X to boot your system with the edited options.

  5. Wait for the system to boot and log in. Then, open a command line and execute the free -m command again. If total amount of RAM displayed by the command matches your expectations, append the following to the line beginning with GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX in the /etc/default/grub file to make the change permanent:

    mem=xxM

    Replace xx with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes.

  6. After you updated the file and saved it, refresh the boot loader configuration so that the change will take effect. Run the following command with root privileges:

    # grub2-mkconfig --output=/boot/grub2/grub.cfg

In /etc/default/grub, the above example would look similar to the following:

GRUB_TIMEOUT=5
GRUB_DISTRIBUTOR="$(sed 's, release.*$,,g' /etc/system-release)"
GRUB_DEFAULT=saved
GRUB_DISABLE_SUBMENU=true
GRUB_TERMINAL_OUTPUT="console"
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="rd.lvm.lv=rhel/root vconsole.font=latarcyrheb-sun16 rd.lvm.lv=rhel/swap $([ -x /usr/sbin/rhcrashkernel.param ] && /usr/sbin/rhcrashkernel-param || :) vconsole.keymap=us rhgb quiet mem=1024M"
GRUB_DISABLE_RECOVERY="true"

See the Fedora System Administrator’s Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/, for more information about working with the GRUB2 boot loader.