그래픽 응용프로그램 열기
페도라는 많은 기능을 구성하기 위해 명령 줄 유틸리티뿐만 아니라 그래픽 응용프로그램을 제공합니다. 이 장은 다양한 환경에서
그래픽 사용자 연결장치, 또는 GUI, 응용프로그램 열기를 위한 방법을 설명합니다.
그래픽 응용프로그램은 응용프로그램의 이름을 단순한 입력하여 터미널 윈도우 또는 콘솔 세션에서 실행 할 수 있습니다.
파일 이름대 응용프로그램 이름
프로그램은 프로그램 꾸러미에서 제공된 실행 할 수 있는 파일의 이름을 사용하여 명령 줄에서 열립니다. 데스크탑 메뉴에 있는 항목은 종종 이를 실행하는 파일에서 다른 이름으로 지정 되어질 수 있습니다. 예를 들면, 그놈 데스크탑 관리 유틸리티는 Disks 와 같은 메뉴에서 나타나고, 이를 실행하는 파일은 `/usr/bin/gnome-disks`입니다.
When a program is executed on the command line, the terminal is occupied until the program completes. When a graphical application is executed from the command line, the program’s error output, or
STDERR, is sent to the terminal window. This can be especially useful when troubleshooting.
[fedorauser@localhost]$ astromenace-wrapper AstroMenace 1.3.1 121212 Open XML file: /home/fedorauser/.config/astromenace/amconfig.xml VFS file was opened /usr/share/astromenace/gamedata.vfs 제조사 : OpenAL Community 이미지 합성 : OpenAL Soft 버전 : 1.1 ALSOFT 1.15.1 ALut 버전 : 1.1 글꼴 초기화됨: DATA/FONT/LiberationMono-Bold.ttf 현재 비디오 방식: 3200x1080 32비트 Xinerama/TwinView 감지됨. Screen count: 2 Screen #0: (0, 0) x (1920, 1080) Screen #1: (1920, 0) x (1280, 1024) 지원 해상도 목록: 640x480 16비트 640x480 32비트 640x480 0비트 768x480 16비트 <잘린 출력>
To launch a graphical application, but fork the additional output into the background and return the terminal for immediate use, use the shell’s
job control feature.
[fedorauser@localhost]$ emacs foo.txt &
Ending a session
Applications that hold the command line prompt until they complete will close when the terminal session ends, even if they are forked into the background.
GUI programs can also be launched on one
TTY and displayed on another by specifying the
DISPLAY variable. This can be useful when running multiple graphical sessions, or for troubleshooting problems with a desktop session.
Switch to another TTY using the key combination Ctrl+Alt+F2 and log in. Note that consoles are available by default with F2 through F6.
Identify the X session you want to target. The
DISPLAYvariable is always an integer preceded by a colon, and will be :0 in most cases. Check the arguments of the currently running X process to verify the value. The command below shows both the
DISPLAYvariable as well as the TTY that X is running on,
[fedorauser@localhost]$ ps aux|grep /usr/bin/X root 1498 7.1 1.0 521396 353984
tty1Ss+ 00:04 66:34 /usr/bin/X
:0vt1 -background none -nolisten tcp -auth /var/run/kdm/A:0-22Degc root 23874 0.0 0.0 109184 900 pts/21 S+ 15:35 0:00 grep --color=auto /usr/bin/X
DISPLAYvariable when executing the program.
[fedorauser@localhost]$ DISPLAY=:0 gnome-shell --replace &
Switch back to the TTY the graphical session is running on. Since the example above shows X running on
vt1, pressing Ctrl+Alt+F1 will return to the desktop environment.
Most desktop environments follow the convention of using the key combination Alt+F2 for opening new applications. Pressing Alt+F2 brings up a prompt for a command to be entered into.
Commands entered into this dialog box function much as they would if entered in a terminal. Applications are known by their file name, and can accept arguments.
Applications can also be opened from the menu system provided by the desktop environment in use. While the presentation may vary between desktop environments, the menu entries and their categories are provided by the individual application and standardized by the freedesktop.org Desktop Menu Specification. Some desktop environments also provide search functionality in their menu system to allow quick and easy access to applications.
The GNOME menu, called the
overview, can be accessed by either clicking the
Activities button in the top left of the primary display, by moving the mouse past the top left
hot corner, or by pressing the Super ( Windows ) key. The
overview presents documents in addition to applications.
Selecting an item from the menu is best accomplished using the
search box. Simply bring up the
overview, and begin typing the name of the application you want to launch. Pressing enter will launch the highlighted application, or you can use the arrow keys or mouse to choose an alternative.
overview can also be browsed. The bar on the left, called the
dash, shows frequently used applications and a grid icon. Clicking on the grid icon brings up a grid in the center of the window that displays frequently used applications. The grid will display all available applications if selected using the
All button at the bottom of the screen.
To learn more about using GNOME shell, visit https://wiki.gnome.org/GnomeShell/CheatSheet
The KDE menu is opened by clicking the Fedora button at the bottom left corner of the screen. The menu initially displays favorite applications, which can be added to by right clicking any menu entry. Hovering over the icons in the lower portion of the menu will display applications, file systems, recently used applications, or options for logging out of the system.
Search functionality is also available in the KDE menu system. To search for applications, open the menu and begin typing. The menu will display matching entries.
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