Opening Graphical Applications

Opening graphical applications from the command line

Graphical applications can be launched from a terminal window or console session by simply typing the name of the application.

[fedorauser@localhost]$ firefox
File names vs Application names

프로그램은 프로그램 꾸러미에서 제공된 실행 할 수 있는 파일의 이름을 사용하여 명령 줄에서 열립니다. 데스크탑 메뉴에 있는 항목은 종종 이를 실행하는 파일에서 다른 이름으로 지정 되어질 수 있습니다. 예를 들면, 그놈 데스크탑 관리 유틸리티는 Disks 와 같은 메뉴에서 나타나고, 이를 실행하는 파일은 `/usr/bin/gnome-disks`입니다.

When a program is executed on the command line, the terminal is occupied until the program completes. When a graphical application is executed from the command line, the program’s error output, or STDERR, is sent to the terminal window. This can be especially useful when troubleshooting.

Example 1. Viewing errors by launching graphical applications from the command line
[fedorauser@localhost]$ astromenace-wrapper
	AstroMenace 1.3.1 121212

	Open XML file: /home/fedorauser/.config/astromenace/amconfig.xml
	VFS file was opened /usr/share/astromenace/gamedata.vfs

	Vendor     : OpenAL Community
	Renderer   : OpenAL Soft
	Version    : 1.1 ALSOFT 1.15.1
	ALut ver   : 1.1

	Font initialized: DATA/FONT/LiberationMono-Bold.ttf

	Current Video Mode: 3200x1080 32bit

	Xinerama/TwinView detected.
	Screen count: 2
	Screen #0: (0, 0) x (1920, 1080)
	Screen #1: (1920, 0) x (1280, 1024)

	Supported resolutions list:
	640x480 16bit
	640x480 32bit
	640x480 0bit
	768x480 16bit
	<output truncated>

To launch a graphical application, but fork the additional output into the background and return the terminal for immediate use, use the shell’s job control feature.

[fedorauser@localhost]$ emacs foo.txt &
Ending a session

Applications that hold the command line prompt until they complete will close when the terminal session ends, even if they are forked into the background.

GUI programs can also be launched on one TTY and displayed on another by specifying the DISPLAY variable. This can be useful when running multiple graphical sessions, or for troubleshooting problems with a desktop session.

  1. Switch to another TTY using the key combination Ctrl+Alt+F2 and log in. Note that consoles are available by default with F2 through F6.

  2. 당신이 대상으로 할 X 세션을 확인합니다. DISPLAY 변수는 항상 콜론(:) 이 앞에 오는 정수이며, 대부분의 경우에 :0 * 입니다. 현재 실행 중인 [application]*X 프로세스의 인수를 점검하여 값을 확인하세요. 아래 명령은`DISPLAY` 변수와 X 가 실행 중인 TTY `tty1`을 모두 보여줍니다.

    [fedorauser@localhost]$ ps aux|grep /usr/bin/X
    root      1498  7.1  1.0 521396 353984 tty1    Ss+  00:04  66:34 /usr/bin/X :0 vt1 -background none -nolisten tcp -auth /var/run/kdm/A:0-22Degc
    
    root     23874  0.0  0.0 109184   900 pts/21   S+   15:35   0:00 grep --color=auto /usr/bin/X
  3. Specify the DISPLAY variable when executing the program.

    [fedorauser@localhost]$ DISPLAY=:0 gnome-shell --replace &
  4. TTY 그래픽 세션이 동작 중인 TTY로 다시 전환합니다. 위의 예제는`vt1`에서 동작 중인 X 를 보여주고, Ctrl+Alt+F1를 눌러서 데스크탑 화면으로 전환합니다.

Launching Applications with Alt+F2

Most desktop environments follow the convention of using the key combination Alt+F2 for opening new applications. Pressing Alt+F2 brings up a prompt for a command to be entered into.

Commands entered into this dialog box function much as they would if entered in a terminal. Applications are known by their file name, and can accept arguments.

GNOME command entry dialog box
Figure 1. Alt+F2 with GNOME 사용하기
KDE command entry dialog box
Figure 2. Alt+F2 사용하기 (KDE 와 함께)
LXDE command entry dialog box.
Figure 3. Alt+F2 사용하기 (LXDE 와 함께)
MATE command entry dialog box.
Figure 4. Alt+F2를 사용하기 (메이트 와 함께)
XFCE command entry dialog box.
Figure 5. Alt+F2 사용하기 (XFCE 와 함께)

Launching applications from the Desktop Menu

Applications can also be opened from the menu system provided by the desktop environment in use. While the presentation may vary between desktop environments, the menu entries and their categories are provided by the individual application and standardized by the freedesktop.org Desktop Menu Specification. Some desktop environments also provide search functionality in their menu system to allow quick and easy access to applications.

Using GNOME menus

`개요’라고 불리는 그놈 메뉴는 기본 표시화면의 상단 왼쪽에 있는 '활동' 누름 단추를 누르거나, 상단 좌측 '핫 코너’를 지나서 마우스를 이동하거나, Super (Windows) 키를 눌러서 접근 할 수 있습니다. '개요’는 응용프로그램에 추가적인 문서를 제공합니다.

Selecting an item from the menu is best accomplished using the search box. Simply bring up the overview, and begin typing the name of the application you want to launch. Pressing enter will launch the highlighted application, or you can use the arrow keys or mouse to choose an alternative.

Typing the name of an application into the overview search box will display matching menu entries. The search also matches descriptions
Figure 6. Using the GNOME search box

The overview can also be browsed. The bar on the left, called the dash, shows frequently used applications and a grid icon. Clicking on the grid icon brings up a grid in the center of the window that displays frequently used applications. The grid will display all available applications if selected using the All button at the bottom of the screen.

The GNOME menu has a bar on the left for frequently used applications
Figure 7. Browsing GNOME menu entries

To learn more about using GNOME shell, visit https://wiki.gnome.org/GnomeShell/CheatSheet

Using KDE menus

KDE 메뉴는 화면의 하단 좌측에서 Fedora 누름 단추를 누르면 열립니다. 메뉴 초기에는 메뉴 항목을 눌러서 우측에 의해 추가되어질 수 있는 자주 찾는 응용프로그램을 표시합니다. 메뉴 하단 부분에 있는 아이콘 위로 가져가서 응용 프로그램, 파일 시스템, 최근에 사용된 응용프로그램 또는 시스템 로그아웃된 선택이 표시됩니다.

The KDE menu displays applications in categories. The contents of the categories are displayed when clicked.
Figure 8. KDE 데스크탑 메뉴.

Search functionality is also available in the KDE menu system. To search for applications, open the menu and begin typing. The menu will display matching entries.

The KDE menu will search for matching applications if you type into the search box. For example
Figure 9. Searching with the KDE menu.

Using menus in LXDE, MATE, and XFCE

Menus in LXDE, MATE, and XFCE have a varied appearance but a very similar structure. They categorize applications, and the contents of a category are displayed by hovering the cursor over the entry. Applications are launched by clicking on an entry.

LXDE Menu
Figure 10. The LXDE menu
MATE menu
Figure 11. MATE menu
XFCE Menu
Figure 12. XFCE Menu