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Boot Options

The Anaconda installer includes a range of boot options for administrators, which modify the default behavior of the installation program by enabling or disabling certain functions. To use one or more boot options, you either have to boot from installation media and append these options at the boot menu (see The Boot Menu), or you must add them into your PXE server configuration file if you are booting from a network (see Setting Up an Installation Server).

你可以同时使用多种选项,如果这样的话则需要使用空格将选项隔开。

本章描述了两种基础类型:

  • 使用等号(=)结尾的选项需要额外指定一个数字——这个选项不能不带数字使用。例如:inst.vncpassword=#选项必须跟一个数字(例如一个密码)。所以正确的形式就类似于[option]#inst.vncpassword=password。对于这个参数而言,如果不指定密码,那么这个选项就无效了。

  • 没有"="标志的选项不接受参数或者值。例如:[option]#rd.live.check#选项强制[application]*Anaconda*在安装前校验安装媒体。只要这个参数,校验就会进行;如不存在则跳过校验。

除本章描述的选项之外,启动提示也接受[application]*dracut*内核选项。这些选项的列表详见`dracut.cmdline(7)` man页面。

Boot options specific to the installation program always start with inst. in this guide. This prefix was optional in previous releases, but starting with Fedora 34, the installer will ignore options that do not use it (for example, stage2= instead of inst.stage2=).

配置启动菜单中的安装系统

The exact way to specify custom boot options is differs based on your system’s architecture, firmware and the method you use to boot the installation. If you are booting from local media, you can specify options in the boot menu, before you begin the installation; if you are booting from a network using a PXE server, you must add boot options into the boot loader configuration file before you boot the installation system. For specific instructions, see The Boot Menu if you are booting from local media, and Setting Up an Installation Server if you are booting from a server.

可用启动选项

在Fedora中可用的选项如下所示:

指定安装源

inst.repo=

指定安装源——即安装程序可以找到安装镜像和所需软件包的位置。例如:

inst.repo=cdrom

源必须是下列之一:

  • 一个可安装的树是一个包含了安装程序的镜像、软件包和repodata(一个有效的`.treeinfo`文件)的目录结构

  • 一个DVD(一个在系统DVD驱动器上的物理磁盘)

  • 一个Fedora的、完全的ISO镜像被放置在硬盘或安装系统的网络位置上

    此功能允许使用不同格式的不同安装方法的配置。下表是配置的语法。

    Table 1. 安装源
    安装源 Option format

    任意的CD/DVD光驱

    inst.repo=cdrom

    指定的CD/DVD光驱

    inst.repo=cdrom:device

    硬盘

    inst.repo=hd:device:/path

    HTTP服务器

    inst.repo=http://host/path

    HTTPS服务器

    inst.repo=https://host/path

    FTP服务器

    inst.repo=ftp://username:password@host/path

    NFS服务器

    inst.repo=nfs:[选项:]server:/path [1]#+nfsvers=X#到_选项_当中。]

    磁盘名可以用以下格式指定:

  • 内核设备名,例如:/dev/sda1`或者`sdb2

  • 文件系统卷标,例如`LABEL=Flash`或者`LABEL=RHEL7`

  • 文件系统UUID,例如:UUID=8176c7bf-04ff-403a-a832-9557f94e61db

    非字母数字的字符必须表示为`\xNN,这里的_NN_是字符的十六进制的表示。例如,\x20`代表空格符号("")。

inst.stage2=

Specifies the location of the installation program runtime image to be loaded. The syntax is the same as in Installation Sources. This option expects a path to a directory containing a valid .treeinfo file; the location of the runtime image will be read from this file if found. If a .treeinfo file is not available, Anaconda will try to load the image from LiveOS/squashfs.img.

启动选项默认应用在安装媒体上,并且为安装媒体设置一个特定的标签(例如,inst.stage2=hd:LABEL=F21\x20Server.x86_64)。如果你修改了包含了运行时的镜像的文件系统的默认标签,那么你必须一并修改这个选项来匹配新的标签。

inst.stage2.all=

With this boot option, the stage 2 image will be fetched from HTTP, HTTPS and FTP locations which are specified using the inst.stage2= option sequentially in the order they are specified, until the image is successfully fetched. All other locations will be ignored.

inst.dd=

If you need to perform a driver update during the installation, use the inst.dd= option. It can be used multiple times. The location of a driver RPM package can be specified using any of the formats described in Installation Sources. With the exception of the inst.dd=cdrom option, the device name must always be specified. For example:

inst.dd=hd:/dev/sdb1:/driver.rpm

Using this option without any parameters (only as inst.dd) will prompt the installation program to ask you for a driver update disk with an interactive menu.

You should never attempt to perform a driver update during the installation unless a missing our faulty driver is preventing you from completing the installation. Updating drivers which are not essential during the installation should always be performed after the system is installed.

inst.askmethod

阻止安装器尝试自动配置安装源。

Normally, when you first enter the Installation Summary screen, the installer will attempt to configure an installation source based on the type of media you used to boot. The full Fedora Server DVD will configure the source as local media, the netinst ISO image will configure the closest network mirror, etc. This process takes time; therefore, if you plan to use a different source than the default, this option will allow you to enter the Installation Source screen immediately without having to wait for the initial configuration to finish.

Using this option will leave the installation source configuration in an error state - you must manually specify a source in the Installation Source screen to proceed with the installation. Alternatively, you can use the inst.repo= option described above to configure a specific source directly in the boot menu.

Kickstart启动选项

inst.ks=

Gives the location of a Kickstart file to be used to automate the installation. Locations can be specified using any of the formats valid for inst.repo=. See Installation Sources for valid formats.

If you only specify a device and not a path, the installation program will look for the Kickstart file in /ks.cfg on the specified device. If you use this option without specifying a device, the installation program will use the following:

inst.ks=nfs:next-server:/filename

In the above example, next-server is the DHCP next-server option or the IP address of the DHCP server itself, and filename is the DHCP filename option, or /kickstart/. If the given file name ends with the / character, ip-kickstart is appended. For example:

Table 2. 默认Kickstart文件位置
DHCP服务器地址 客户端地址 Kickstart文件位置

192.168.122.1

192.168.122.100

192.168.122.1:/kickstart/192.168.122.100-kickstart

inst.ks.all=

With this boot option, the Kickstart file will be fetched from HTTP, HTTPS and FTP locations which are specified using the inst.ks= option sequentially in the order they are specified, until the file is successfully fetched. All other locations will be ignored.

inst.ks.sendmac

增加报文头到外发`HTTP`请求的网络接口的MAC地址。例如:

X-RHN-Provisioning-MAC-0: eth0 01:23:45:67:89:ab

使用[option]#inst.ks=http#来监视系统状态非常有用。

inst.ks.sendsn

Adds a header to outgoing HTTP requests. This header will contain the system’s serial number, read from /sys/class/dmi/id/product_serial. The header has the following syntax:

X-System-Serial-Number: R8VA23D

控制台、环境和显示选项

console=

This kernel option specifies a device to be used as the primary console. For example, to use a console on the first serial port, use console=ttyS0. This option should be used along with the inst.text option.

You can use this option multiple times. In that case, the boot message will be displayed on all specified consoles, but only the last one will be used by the installation program afterwards. For example, if you specify console=ttyS0 console=ttyS1, the installation program will only use ttyS1.

noshell

Disables access to the root shell during the installation. This is useful with automated (Kickstart) installations - if you use this option, a user can watch the installation progress, but they cannot interfere with it by accessing the root shell by pressing Ctrl+Alt+F2.

inst.lang=

Sets the language to be used during the installation. Language codes are the same as the ones used in the lang Kickstart command as described in lang (optional) - Configure Language During Installation. On systems where the system-config-language package is installed, a list of valid values can also be find in /usr/share/system-config-language/locale-list.

If you perform the installation interactively, the language you specified using this option will be selected by default, but you will still be able to change it at the beginning of the graphical installation.

inst.singlelang

Allows you to run the installation in single language mode - in other words, this option disables language selection for the installer and the installed system. If you also use the inst.lang= option at the same time, the language you specify will be used. If you do not set the language, Anaconda and the installed system will default to en-US.UTF-8.

inst.geoloc=

Configures geolocation usage in the installation program. Geolocation is used to pre-set the language and time zone, and uses the following syntax: inst.geoloc=value

_value_参数可以是下列参数中的任意一个参数:

Table 3. inst.geoloc选项的有效值

禁用地理定位

inst.geoloc=0

使用Fedora GeoIP API

inst.geoloc=provider_fedora_geoip

使用Hostip.info GeoIP API

inst.geoloc=provider_hostip

如果不指定此选项,那么[application]*Anaconda*将使用`provider_fedora_geoip`。

inst.keymap=

Specifies the keyboard layout to be used by the installation program. Layout codes are the same as the ones used in the keyboard Kickstart command as described in keyboard (optional) - Configure Keyboard Layouts.

inst.text

Forces the installation program to run in text mode instead of graphical mode. The text user interface is limited, for example, it does not allow you to modify the partition layout or set up LVM. When installing a system on a machine with a limited graphical capabilities, it is recommended to use VNC as described in Enabling Remote Access Using VNC.

inst.cmdline

Forces the installation program to run in command line mode. This mode does not allow any interaction, all options must be specified in a Kickstart file or on the command line.

inst.graphical

强制安装程序以图形模式运行。这是默认选项。

inst.resolution=

Specifies the screen resolution in graphical mode. The format is NxM, where N is the screen width and M is the screen height (in pixels). The lowest supported resolution is 800x600.

inst.xdriver=

指定`X`驱动的驱动名用于安装过程中和安装后的操作系统中。

inst.usefbx

Tells the installation program to use the frame buffer X driver instead of a hardware-specific driver. This option is equivalent to inst.xdriver=fbdev.

inst.xtimeout=

Specifies a timeout period (in seconds) the installer will wait before starting the X server.

modprobe.blacklist=

Blacklists (completely disables) one or more drivers. Drivers (mods) disabled using this option will be prevented from loading when the installation starts, and after the installation finishes, the installed system will keep these settings. The blacklisted drivers can then be found in the /etc/modprobe.d/ directory.

使用逗号分隔列表来禁用多个驱动。例如:

modprobe.blacklist=ahci,firewire_ohci
inst.sshd

Starts the sshd service during the installation, which allows you to connect to the system during the installation using SSH and monitor its progress. For more information on SSH, see the ssh(1) man page and the corresponding chapter in the Fedora System Administrator’s Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/.

During the installation, the root account has no password by default. You can set a root password to be used during the installation with the sshpw Kickstart command as described in sshpw (optional) - Restrict ssh Access During Installation.

inst.decorated=

Starting with Fedora 27, the graphical installer window has no decorations. Use this option to enable window decorations again.

网络启动选项

Initial network initialization is handled by dracut. This section only lists some of the more commonly used options; for a complete list, see the dracut.cmdline(7) man page. Additional information on networking is also available in the Fedora Networking Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/.

ip=

Configures one or more network interfaces. To configure multiple interfaces, use the ip option multiple times - once for each interface. If multiple interfaces are configured, you must specify a primary boot interface using the bootdev option described below.

下列表格列出了可用参数:

Table 4. 网络接口配置格式
Configuration Method Option format

Automatic configuration of any interface

ip=method

Automatic configuration of a specific interface

ip=interface:method

Static configuration

ip=ip::gateway:netmask:hostname:interface:none

Automatic configuration of a specific interface with an override [2]

ip=ip::gateway:netmask:hostname:interface:method:mtu

[option]#method#参数可以为下列参数中的任何一个:

Table 5. 自动化接口配置方式
自动配置方式 Value

DHCP

dhcp

IPv6 DHCP

dhcp6

IPv6 自动配置

auto6

iBFT (iSCSI 启动固件列表)

ibft

If you use a boot option which requires network access, such as inst.ks=http://host:/path, without specifying the ip option, the installation program will use ip=dhcp.

In the above tables, the ip parameter specifies the client’s IP address. IPv6 addresses can be specified by putting them in square brackets, for example, [2001:DB8::1].

_gateway_参数是默认网关。也支持IPv6地址。

The netmask parameter is the netmask to be used. This can either be a full netmask (for example 255.255.255.0) or a prefix (for example 64).

_hostname_参数是客户端系统的主机名。此参数是可选的。

nameserver=

指定域名服务器。此选项允许使用多次。

bootdev=

指定启动接口。如果用了[option]#ip#则此参数是可选的。

ifname=

Assigns a given interface name to a network device with a given MAC address. Can be used multiple times. The syntax is ifname=interface:MAC. For example:

ifname=eth0:01:23:45:67:89:ab
inst.dhcpclass=

Specifies the DHCP vendor class identifier. The dhcpd service will see this value as vendor-class-identifier. The default value is anaconda-$(uname -srm).

vlan=

Sets up a Virtual LAN (VLAN) device on a specified interface with a given name. The syntax is vlan=name:interface. For example:

vlan=vlan5:em1

The above will set up a VLAN device named vlan5 on the em1 interface. The name can take the following forms:

Table 6. VLAN设备命名协议
Naming scheme Example

VLAN_PLUS_VID

vlan0005

VLAN_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD

vlan5

DEV_PLUS_VID

em1.0005.

DEV_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD

em1.5.

bond=

Set up a bonding device with the following syntax: bond=name[:slaves][:options]. Replace name with the bonding device name, slaves with a comma-separated list of physical (ethernet) interfaces, and options with a comma-separated list of bonding options. For example:

bond=bond0:em1,em2:mode=active-backup,tx_queues=32,downdelay=5000

要获取可用选项,请执行[command]#modinfo bonding#命令。

不带参数用这个选项时,视为[option]bond=bond0:eth0,eth1:mode=balance-rr

team=

Set up a team device with the following syntax: team=master:slaves. Replace master with the name of the master team device and slaves with a comma-separated list of physical (ethernet) devices to be used as slaves in the team device. For example:

team=team0:em1,em2

高级安装选项

inst.multilib

Configure the system for multilib packages (that is, to allow installing 32-bit packages on a 64-bit x86 system) and install packages specified in this section as such.

Normally, on an AMD64 or Intel 64 system, only packages for this architecture (marked as x86_64) and packages for all architectures (marked as noarch) would be installed. When you use this option, packages for 32-bit AMD or Intel systems (marked as i686) will be automatically installed as well if available.

This only applies to packages directly specified in the %packages section. If a package is only installed as a dependency, only the exact specified dependency will be installed. For example, if you are installing package foo which depends on package bar, the former will be installed in multiple variants, while the latter will only be installed in variants specifically required.

inst.gpt

Force the installation program to install partition information into a GUID Partition Table (GPT) instead of a Master Boot Record (MBR). This option is meaningless on UEFI-based systems, unless they are in BIOS compatibility mode.

Normally, BIOS-based systems and UEFI-based systems in BIOS compatibility mode will attempt to use the MBR schema for storing partitioning information, unless the disk is larger than 2 TB. Using this option will change this behavior, allowing a GPT to be written even to disks smaller than 2 TB.

See Recommended Partitioning Scheme for more information about GPT and MBR, and GUID Partition Table (GPT) for more general information about GPT, MBR and disk partitioning in general.

inst.nosave=

This option controls which Kickstart files and installation logs are saved to the installed system. It can be especially useful to disable saving such data when performing OEM operating system installations, or when generating images using sensitive resources (such as internal repository URLs), as these resources might otherwise be mentioned in kickstart files and/or logs on the image. Possible values for this option are:

input_ks——禁用保存输入Kickstart文件(如果有的话)。

output_ks——禁用保存由Anaconda创建的输出Kickstart文件。

all_ks——禁用保存输入Kickstart文件和输出Kickstart文件。

logs——禁用保存安装log。

all——禁用保存所有Kickstart文件和安装log。

多个参数可以用逗号分隔列表进行组合,例如:input_ks,logs

inst.memcheck

Perform a check at the beginning of the installation to determine if there is enough available RAM. If there is not enough memory detected, the installation will stop with an error message. This option is enabled by default; use inst.memcheck=0 to disable it.

inst.nodnf

Use the older Yum backend for package installation and dependency resolution instead of DNF. See the Fedora System Administrator’s Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/, for details about DNF.

inst.kdump_addon=

Turns the Kdump installer add-on on or off (the add-on is off by default). If you use inst.kdump_addon=on, a new screen, which allows you to configure the Kdump kernel crash dumping mechanism, will appear in the main menu of the graphical or text interface (see Kdump). Enabling this add-on is also necessary to use the %addon com_redhat_kdump (optional) - Configure kdump Kickstart command.

通过VNC启用远程连接

The following options are necessary to configure Anaconda for remote graphical installation. See Installing Using VNC for more details.

inst.vnc

Specifies that the installation program’s graphical interface should be run in a VNC session. If you specify this option, you will need to connect to the system using a VNC client application to be able to interact with the installation program. VNC sharing is enabled, so multiple clients can connect to the system at the same time.

使用`VNC`安装的操作系统将默认以文本模式启动。

inst.vncpassword=

VNC server used by the installation program. Any VNC client attempting to connect to the system will have to provide the correct password to gain access. For example, inst.vncpassword=testpwd will set the password to testpwd. The password must be between 6 and 8 characters long.

If you specify an invalid password (one that is too short or too long), you will be prompted to specify a new one by a message from the installation program:

VNC password must be six to eight characters long.
Please enter a new one, or leave blank for no password.

密码:
inst.vncconnect=

Connect to a listening VNC client at a specified host and port once the installation starts. The correct syntax is inst.vncconnect=host:port. The port parameter is optional - if you do not specify one, the installation program will use 5900.

调试和故障排除

inst.updates=

Specifies the location of the updates.img file to be applied to the installation program runtime. The syntax is the same as in the inst.repo option - see Installation Sources for details. In all formats, if you do not specify a file name but only a directory, the installation program will look for a file named updates.img.

inst.loglevel=

Specifies the minimum level for messages to be logged on a terminal. This only concerns real-time logging in a terminal; log files will always contain messages of all levels.

Possible values for this option from the lowest to highest level are: debug, info, warning, error and critical. The default value is info, which means that by default, the logging terminal will display messages ranging from info to critical, but not debug.

inst.syslog=

Once the installation starts, this option sends log messages to the syslog process on the specified host. The remote syslog process must be configured to accept incoming connections.

inst.virtiolog=

Specifies a virtio port (a character device at /dev/virtio-ports/name) to be used for forwarding logs. The default value is org.fedoraproject.anaconda.log.0; if this port is present, it will be used.

弃用的启动选项

Options in this list are deprecated. They will still work, but there are other options which offer the same functionality and should be preferred. Using deprecated options is not recommended and they are expected to be removed in future releases.

Note that as described in the introduction to this chapter, options specific to the installation program now use the inst. prefix. For example, the vnc= option is considered deprecated and replaced by the inst.vnc= option. However, these changes are not listed here.

inst.headless

Used to specify that the machine being installed onto does not have any display hardware, and to prevent the installer from trying to detect a display.

method=

配置安装方式。请换用[option]inst.repo= option。

repo=nfsiso:server:/path

In NFS installations, specified that the target is an ISO image located on an NFS server instead of an installable tree. The difference is now detected automatically, which means this option is the same as inst.repo=nfs:server:/path.

dns=

配置域名服务器(DNS)。请换用[option]nameserver=

netmask=, gateway=, hostname=, ip=, ipv6=

这些选项已合并为[option]#ip=#选项。

ksdevice=

Select network device to be used at early stage of installation. Different values have been replaced with different options; see the table below.

Table 7. 自动化接口配置方式
Value Current behavior

Not present

All devices are attempted to be activated using dhcp, unless desired device and configuration is specified by ip= option and/or the BOOTIF option.

ksdevice=link

Similar to the above, with the difference that network will always be activated in the initramfs, whether it is needed or not. The supported rd.neednet option (provided by dracut) should be used instead.

ksdevice=bootif

Ignored (the BOOTID= option is used by default when specified)

ksdevice=ibft

Replaced with the ip=ibft option

ksdevice=MAC

Replaced with BOOTIF=MAC

ksdevice=device

Replaced by specifying the device name using the ip= option.

When performing a Kickstart installation, booting from local media and having the Kickstart file on local media as well, the network will not be initialized. This means that any other Kickstart options requiring network access, such as pre-installation or post-installation scripts accessing a network location, will cause the installation to fail. This is a known issue; see BZ#1085310 for details.

To work around this issue, either use the ksdevice=link boot option, or add the --device=link option to the network command in your Kickstart file.

blacklist=

用于禁用特定驱动。请换用[option]modprobe.blacklist=

nofirewire=

Disabled support for the FireWire interface. You can disable the FireWire driver (firewire_ohci) by using the modprobe.blacklist= option instead:

modprobe.blacklist=firewire_ohci

移除的启动选项

The following options are removed. They were present in previous releases of Fedora, but they cannot be used anymore.

asknetwork

The installation program’s initramfs is now completely non-interactive, which means that this option are not available anymore. Use ip= to configure network settings.

serial

此选项强制[application]*Anaconda*使用`/dev/ttyS0`终端作为输出。请换用[option]#console=/dev/ttyS0#或类似的终端。

updates=

指定安装程序的更新位置。请换用[option]inst.updates=

essid=, wepkey=, wpakey=

Configured wireless network access. Network configuration is now being handled by dracut, which does not support wireless networking, rendering these options useless.

ethtool=

Used in the past to configure additional low-level network settings. All network settings are now handled by the ip= option.

gdb

允许你调试加载器。请换用[option]rd.debug

mediacheck

在启动前验证安装媒体。请换用[option]rd.live.check

ks=floppy

指定一个软盘为Kickstart文件来源。目前已经不再支持软盘。

display=

配置一个远端显示器。请换用[option]inst.vnc

utf8

以文本模式安装时添加UTF8支持。目前会自动添加UTF8支持。

noipv6

Used to disable IPv6 support in the installation program. IPv6 is now built into the kernel so the driver cannot be blacklisted; however, it is possible to disable IPv6 using the ipv6.disable option.

upgradeany

Upgrades are done in a different way in current Fedora releases. For more information about upgrading your system, see Upgrading Your Current System.

vlanid=

配置VLAN(802.1q标签)。请换用[option]vlan=

inst.dnf

Used to enable DNF to handle package installation and dependency resolution in Fedora 21. DNF is now used by default and this option has been replaced with inst.nodnf, which reverts back to Yum.

使用维护启动模式

加载内存(RAM)测试模式

Faults in memory (RAM) modules may cause your system to freeze or crash unpredictably. In some cases, memory faults may only cause errors with particular combinations of software. For this reason, you should test the memory of a computer before you install Fedora for the first time, even if it has previously run other operating systems.

Fedora includes the Memtest86+ memory testing application. To start memory testing mode, choose Troubleshooting > Memory test at the boot menu. Testing will begin immediately. By default, Memtest86+ carries out ten tests in every pass; a different configuration can be specified by accessing the configuration screen using the c key. After the first pass completes, a message will appear at the bottom informing you of the current status, and another pass will start automatically.

[application]*Memtest86+*只在BIOS系统上生效。对于UEFI系统则暂不支持。

Memtest86+测试系统内存
Figure 1. 用Memtest86+进行内存检查

主屏幕在测试时分为三部分:

  • The upper left corner shows information about your system’s memory configuration - the amount of detected memory and processor cache and their throughputs and processor and chipset information. This information is detected when Memtest86+ starts.

  • The upper right corner displays information about the tests - progress of the current pass and the currently running test in that pass as well as a description of the test.

  • The central part of the screen is used to display information about the entire set of tests from the moment when the tool has started, such as the total time, the number of completed passes, number of detected errors and your test selection. On some systems, detailed information about the installed memory (such as the number of installed modules, their manufacturer, frequency and latency) will be also displayed here. After the each pass completes, a short summary will appear in this location. For example:

     Pass complete, no errors, press Esc to exit 

    If Memtest86+ detects an error, it will also be displayed in this area and highlighted red. The message will include detailed information such as which test detected a problem, the memory location which is failing, and others.

In most cases, a single successful pass (that is, a single run of all 10 tests) is sufficient to verify that your RAM is in good condition. In some rare circumstances, however, errors that went undetected on the first pass might appear on subsequent passes. To perform a thorough test on an important system, leave the tests running overnight or even for a few days in order to complete multiple passes.

The amount of time it takes to complete a single full pass of Memtest86+ varies depending on your system’s configuration (notably the RAM size and speed). For example, on a system with 2 GB of DDR2 memory at 667 MHz, a single pass will take roughly 20 minutes to complete.

要中止测试并重启电脑,可以随时按下Esc按键。

For more information about using Memtest86+, see the official website at https://www.memtest.org/. A README file is also located in /usr/share/doc/memtest86+-version/ on Fedora systems with the memtest86+ package installed.

验证启动媒体

You can test the integrity of an ISO-based installation source before using it to install Fedora. These sources include DVDs and ISO images stored on a local hard drive or NFS server. Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation helps to avoid problems that are often encountered during installation.

To test the integrity of an ISO image, append the rd.live.check to the boot loader command line. Note that this option is used automatically if you select the default installation option from the boot menu (Test this media & install Fedora).

在救援模式下启动你的电脑

You may boot a command-line Linux system from an installation disc without actually installing Fedora on the computer. This enables you to use the utilities and functions of a running Linux system to modify or repair already installed operating systems.

To load the rescue system with the installation disk or USB drive, choose Rescue a Fedora system from the Troubleshooting submenu in the boot menu, or use the inst.rescue boot option.

Specify the language, keyboard layout and network settings for the rescue system with the screens that follow. The final setup screen configures access to the existing system on your computer.

默认地:救援模式将一个现存的操作系统通过`/mnt/sysimage/`关联到救援模式系统上。


1. 此选项默认使用NFS协议第3版。要使用其他版本的协议,你需要增加[option
2. Brings up the specified interface using the specified method of automatic configuration, such as dhcp, but overrides the automatically obtained IP address, gateway, netmask, hostname or other specified parameter. All parameters are optional; only specify the ones you wish to override and automatically obtained values will be used for the others.