使用 Anaconda 安装

本章节将介绍如何使用 Anaconda 安装程序安装 Fedora 。我们主要讲述的是图形界面下的安装,然而在必要的情况下文本模式也是可用的(功能可能会被限制,例如自定义分区功能在文本模式下就是不可用的)。

如果你的设备没有使用图形界面模式的条件,你可以:

  • 参照 这篇文章 使用 Kickstart 将安装流程自动化

  • 借助另一台有图形界面显示条件的设备通过 VNC 完成安装 - 详情请阅读 使用 VNC 安装 这篇文章

Anaconda 简介

大多数安装程序都遵循固定的路径:你必须先选择语言,然后配置网络,然后再配置安装类型,再进行分区,做完这样才可以做另一样。然而 Fedora 安装程序 - Anaconda 和这些安装程序不一样,它拥有着独特的并行特性。

Anaconda 你只需要选择好语言和地区,就会被带到一个中央面板页面,你可以在这个页面以任意的顺序完成你的安装前设定。当然这也不适用于一切情形的,例如网络安装时就必须要配置好网络才可以选定安装的软件包。

Some screens will be automatically configured depending on your hardware and the type of media you used to start the installation. You can still change the detected settings in any screen. Screens which have not been automatically configured, and therefore require your attention before you begin the installation, are marked by an exclamation mark. You cannot start the actual installation process before you finish configuring these settings.

当然了还会有其他的差别,特别注意的是手动分区部分跟其它 Linux 发行版的区别不小,我们在后面再做介绍。

命令行与日志

接下来我们将介绍如何在安装期间访问命令行和日志,这在安装出现问题时会很有用处,当然大部分情况下我们是用不上它们的。

访问命令行

Fedora 安装程序使用 tmux 终端多路复用器以显示和控制多个窗口。每个窗口都有不同的用途,例如显示不同的日志文件以在安装时进行排错处理、使用带有 root 权限的交互式 Shell 等(当然你可以通过引导选项设置和 Kickstart 命令关闭特定的功能)。

通常来说,如果没有排错处理的需要,是没有必要离开默认的图形化安装环境的。

终端多路复用器运行于 1 号虚拟终端,你可以使用 Ctrl+Alt+F1 从常规安装环境切换到位于 6 号虚拟终端的 tmux ,要想返回到常规安装环境可以使用 Ctrl+Alt+F6

如果你使用的是文字模式的安装, tmux 依然是在 1 号虚拟终端,只是 6 号虚拟终端就是一个 Shell 环境而不是图形界面了。

运行 tmux 的终端有五个可用的窗口,我们在下面列举了每个窗口的快捷键和功能。注意快捷键包含两部分,你要首先按下 Ctrl+b ,然后松开这两个键,再按下数字键前往对应的窗口。

你还可以使用 Ctrl+b nCtrl+b p 切换到下一个或上一个 tmux 窗口。

Table 1. 可用的 tmux 窗口
快捷键 功能

Ctrl+b 1

主安装程序窗口,也带有一些调试信息。

Ctrl+b 2

带有 root 权限的交互式 Shell。

Ctrl+b 3

安装日志 /tmp/anaconda.log 的显示。

Ctrl+b 4

存储日志 /tmp/storage.log 的显示,主要是跟内核与系统服务使用到的存储设备相关的一些信息。

Ctrl+b 5

程序日志 /tmp/program.log 的显示,主要是其他系统组件的一些消息。

除了 tmux 会显示调试信息外,Anaconda 也会生成一些日志文件, 这个小节 对这些日志文件有进一步的说明,如果你希望导出这些文件到可写的设备上,可以参考 这个页面的说明

屏幕截图储存

You can press Shift+Print Screen at any time during the graphical installation to capture the current screen. These screenshots are saved to /tmp/anaconda-screenshots.

Additionally, you can use the autostep --autoscreenshot command in a Kickstart file to capture and save each step of the installation automatically. See autostep (optional) - Go Through Every Screen for details.

Installing in Text Mode

Text mode installation offers an interactive, non-graphical interface for installing Fedora. This may be useful on systems with no graphical capabilities; however, you should always consider the available alternatives before starting a text-based installation. Text mode is limited in the amount of choices you can make during the installation.

To start a text mode installation, boot the installation with the inst.text boot option used either at the boot command line in the boot menu, or in your PXE server configuration. See Booting the Installation for information about booting and using boot options.

There are two alternatives to text mode which can both be used even if the installation system does not have a graphical display. You can either connect to the installation system using VNC and perform an interactive graphical installation remotely (see Installing Using VNC), or you can create a Kickstart file to perform the installation automatically (see Automating the Installation with Kickstart).

The main menu in during a text-based installation.
Figure 1. Text Mode Installation

Installation in text mode follows a pattern similar to the graphical installation: There is no single fixed progression; you can configure many settings in any order you want using the main status screen. Screens which have already been configured, either automatically or by you, are marked as [x], and screens which require your attention before the installation can begin are marked with [!]. Available commands are displayed below the list of available options.

Limits of interactive text mode installation include:

  • The installer will always use the English language and the US English keyboard layout. You can configure your language and keyboard settings, but these settings will only apply to the installed system, not to the installation.

  • You cannot configure any advanced storage methods (LVM, software RAID, FCoE, zFCP and iSCSI).

  • It is not possible to configure custom partitioning; you must use one of the automatic partitioning settings. You also cannot configure where the boot loader will be installed.

Installing in the Graphical User Interface

The graphical installation interface is the preferred method of manually installing Fedora. It allows you full control over all available settings, including custom partitioning and advanced storage configuration, and it is also localized to many languages other than English, allowing you to perform the entire installation in a different language. The graphical mode is used by default when you boot the system from local media (a CD, DVD or a USB flash drive).

The sections below discuss each screen available in the installation process. Note that due to the installer’s parallel nature, most of the screens do not have to be completed in the order in which they are described here.

Each screen in the graphical interface contains a Help button. This button opens the Yelp help browser displaying the section of the Fedora Installation Guide relevant to the current screen.

You can also control the graphical installer with your keyboard. Use Tab and Shift+Tab to cycle through active control elements (buttons, check boxes, etc.) on the current screen, Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, and Left and Right to scroll through horizontal toolbars or table entries. Space or Enter can be used to select or remove a highlighted item from selection and to expand and collapse drop-down menus.

Additionally, elements in each screen can be toggled using their respective shortcuts. These shortcuts are highlighted (underlined) when you hold down the Alt key; to toggle that element, press Alt+X, where X is the highlighted letter.

Your current keyboard layout is displayed in the top right hand corner. Only one layout is configured by default; if you configure more than layout in the Keyboard Layout screen (Keyboard Layout), you can switch between them by clicking the layout indicator.

欢迎界面和语言选择

在图形化安装程序启动后显示的第一屏就是欢迎界面。

显示有语言选择项的欢迎界面屏幕截图。
Figure 2. 欢迎界面

首先在左侧的栏目选择你偏好的语言,然后从右侧的栏目选择你的地区。如果你不想耗费时间在近七十种语言中寻找你的语言,你可以使用左下角的输入框进行搜索。

你所选择的语言会被设定为图形安装程序的显示语言,在安装的全程被使用,也会作为安装后系统的默认语言。尽管你可以在未来修改系统的语言,但是一旦你在这里点击继续,你就不能再回去重新制定安装程序的语言了。

我们会为你默认挑选一种语言,如果你的网络连接在这个时候已经可用了(例如你在网络服务器上引导了安装介质),我们就会通过 GeoIP 模组探测你的位置并将相应的语言设定为默认。指定默认语言的方式还包括在引导选项或者 PXE 服务器配置添加 inst.lang= 。默认语言会出现在语言列表顶部,但是你依然可以在操作选单任意指定其它的语言以用于后续安装和使用。

在选择好语言和地区后,点击继续以确认你的选择然后前往 安装摘要页

如果你在使用 Fedora 的预发布版本,在点击继续后会有提示框出现告知你你使用的介质是预发布的。此时你可以选择继续安装,或者退出安装重启系统。

安装摘要

安装摘要页面在安装程序中处于枢纽的地位,绝大多数的安装选项都可以从这里访问。

安装摘要页面
Figure 3. 安装摘要

如果你通过引导选项或者 Kickstart 配置文件指定安装来源为网络上的软件仓库,然而网络在安装开始的时候却不可用,那么安装程序将会在显示安装摘要页面之前显示网络配置页面。

安装摘要页面包含了若干个跳转到其它页面的链接,这些链接以类别的形式组织起来。对于每一个链接,都有着下面几种状态:

  • 图标旁边显示着 警告标志 (带有感叹号的黄色三角形)意味着在开始安装之前需要额外留意这个页面。通常安装路径页面对应的链接在初始时就是这样的,尽管有自动分区功能,但我们仍然要求你至少进入这个页面进行确认,哪怕你什么都不修改。

  • 链接文字 变灰 意味着安装程序正在对这个页面的选项进行设置,在访问这个页面之前你必须等待安装程序完成有关的设置。当你修改了安装来源后通常就会有这种情况发生,这是因为安装程序会花上一点时间探测新的安装来源并获取可用软件包列表。

  • 链接文字 黑色且无警告标志 意味着这个页面无需你的特别留意。你依然可以进入这个页面并进行一些改动,但是这对于完成安装来说不再是必要的。这常见于区域设置页面,因为这个页面的选项基本都被预先探测或在欢迎页配置妥当了。

页面底部显示有警告信息,开始安装按钮被禁用,这意味着存在没有完成配置的选项。

安装摘要页面图标示例截屏
Figure 4. 安装摘要页的状态图标

每个页面的标题下方都有解释性的文字,显示当前页面已经配置的内容。有时候显示出来的内容会被精简,在必要的时候可以将鼠标移到上面以获得完整的文字内容。

安装摘要的每个栏目都包含着精简过的描述信息和能显示完整信息的提示框。
Figure 5. 安装摘要页的提示框

当你配置好安装所需的一起事物,你就可以点击开始安装按钮以安装 Fedora 。这会将你重定向到 安装进程 页面。请注意在点击这个按钮之前,我们不会对你的硬盘作任何的改动。你可以随时退出安装程序,此时我们会撤销你所有的设置并为你重启系统。

日期与时间

The Date & Time screen allows you to configure time and date-related settings for your system. This screen is automatically configured based on the settings you selected in Welcome Screen and Language Selection, but you can change your date, time and location settings before you begin the installation.

日期与时间页面屏幕截图
Figure 6. 日期与时间

首先你可以从屏幕左上角的下拉菜单中选择你所在的地区,然后选择你所在的城市或者距离你所在位置最近的且位于同一时区的城市。指定一个准确的位置有利于 Fedora 充分考虑夏令时等条件,从而正确设定你的时间。

你也可以直接指定你所在的时区而不去指定地区,只需将 Etc 设置为你的地区即可。

The list of cities and regions comes from the Time Zone Database (tzdata) public domain, which is maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). The Fedora Project cannot add cities or regions into this database. You can find more information at the IANA official website.

右上角的切换按钮可以用于启用和关闭基于 NTP 的网络时间自动同步服务。启用这个选项可以保证你的系统在连接到互联网的前提下时间准确。NTP 池已经被默认配置好,但你可以随时对 NTP 服务器进行调整。

A dialog window allowing you to add or remove NTP pools from your system configuration
Figure 7. The Add and mark for usage NTP servers dialog

If you disable network time synchronization, the controls at the bottom of the screen will become active, and you will be able to set the current time and date manually.

After configuring your time and date settings, press the Done button in the top left corner to return to Installation Summary.

Keyboard Layout

The Keyboard Layout screen allows you to set up one or more keyboard layouts for your system and a way to switch between them. One keyboard layout is configured automatically based on your selection in Welcome Screen and Language Selection, but you can change this layout and add additional ones before you begin the installation.

Keyboard layouts are a separate setting from system languages, and these two settings can be mixed as you see fit.

All settings configured in this screen will be available on the installed system, and they will also become immediately available inside the installer. You can use the keyboard icon in the top right corner of any screen, or the keyboard switch you configured in this screen, to cycle between your configured layouts.

The keyboard layout configuration screen
Figure 8. Keyboard Layout

The left half of the screen contains a window listing all currently configured layouts. The order in which the layouts are displayed is important - the same order will be used when switching between layouts, and the first listed layout will be the default on your system.

The text field on the right side of the screen can be used to test the currently selected layout.

You can click a layout in the list to highlight it. At the bottom of the list, there is a set of buttons:

  • The + button adds a new layout. When you press this button, a new window opens with a list of all available layouts, grouped by language. You can find a layout by browsing the list, or you can use the search bar at the bottom of this window. When you find the layout you want to add, highlight it and press Add.

  • The - button removes the currently highlighted layout.

  • The up and down buttons can be used to move the highlighted layout up or down in the list.

  • The keyboard button opens a new window which offers a visual representation of the highlighted layout.

If you use a layout that cannot accept Latin characters, such as Russian, you are advised to also add the English (United States) layout and configure a keyboard combination to switch between the two layouts. If you only select a layout without Latin characters, you may be unable to enter a valid root password and user credentials later in the installation process. This may prevent you from completing the installation.

You can also optionally configure a keyboard switch which can be used to cycle between available layouts. To do so, click the Options button on the right side of the screen. The Layout Switching Options dialog will open, allowing you to configure one or more keys or key combinations for switching. Select one or more key combinations using the check boxes next to them, and click OK to confirm your selection.

After you finish configuring keyboard layouts and switches, click Done in the top left corner to return to Installation Summary.

语言支持

The Language Support screen allows you to configure language settings for your system. The default language is determined by your selection in Welcome Screen and Language Selection and support for this language cannot be removed. You can only add additional languages, which will be available on the installed system - not during the installation.

如果你希望更换默认语言,或者安装时使用的语言,你必须重启你的系统重新进入安装程序,并在 欢迎页 选择其它的语言。

添加其它语言的同时键盘布局并不会自动设置。你可能还需要前往 键盘布局 页面进行设置。

语言支持页面。可以看到左栏中英语和法语都被选中了,而在右栏可以看到在法语栏目中,法语(法国)和法语(加拿大)都被选中了。
Figure 9. 语言支持

左栏包括了一些可选的语言组,例如英语和中文。如果你从中选择了至少一组,该组语言的左侧就会出现一个勾选标记,这个语言组也会被高亮显示。这样子你就可以很方便地看到哪些语言被配置过了。

要添加一种或多种语言,从左栏选择一个语言组,然后在右栏选择一个具体的语言变种。重复这一步骤,直到所有需要启用的语言都已经配置妥当。

如果你启用了特定的语言(如某些不采用拉丁字母的语言),我们可能会为你安装额外的软件包。例如,如果你勾选了阿拉伯语言组,我们会为你安装 arabic-support 软件包组。要了解更多信息,可前往 软件包选择 页面。

当你完成设置后,点击左上角的完成按钮回到 安装摘要页

安装源

安装源页面允许你指定从何处(本地或网络)下载软件包以用于安装。在大多数情况下,这个页面的设置项会被自动配置,但是你仍然可以对页面上的选项作出修改。

通常来说,当你首次进入安装摘要页面时,安装程序将尝试根据你使用的安装介质配置安装源。 如果你使用 Fedora Server DVD ,安装程序将会把安装源源配置为本地媒体;如果你使用网络安装 ISO,则会配置为最近的网络镜像等等。此过程需要耗费一些时间,尤其是在默认源为网络镜像的情况下。如果你打算自定义安装源,请使用 inst.askmethod 引导选项以跳过初始配置。请阅读 指定安装源 了解有关引导选项的更多信息。

安装源页面
Figure 10. 安装源

可用的选项如下所示,注意有些不适用于你的选项可能会被隐藏。

自动探测的安装介质

如果安装程序是通过一个带有安装源的媒体启动的,例如 Live DVD,那么这个选项就会成为默认值。你不需要采取额外的措施,作为可选项你可以在此处校验媒体的可用性。

ISO 文件

如果你在启动的时候挂载了已有分区的磁盘设备,这个选项就会可用。选择此项后,你还需要指定一个 ISO 文件,同样你可以在此处校验文件的可用性。

网络

除了从本地媒体获取软件包,还可以选择此项以使用网络获取软件包。当你使用网络安装媒体时此选项将成为默认值。

在多数情况下,我们推荐你从下拉列表中选择最近的镜像一栏。这样子所有软件包都会从最合适的镜像站获取。

要手动配置基于网络的安装源,请使用下拉菜单指定下载软件包时要使用的协议。 此设置取决于你要使用的服务器。 然后,在地址字段中键入服务器地址(不带协议)。 如果您选择 NFS,则会出现第二个输入字段,你可以在其中指定自定义的 NFS 挂载选项。

当你选择了 NFS 安装源,你需要使用 : 将主机和路径间隔开来,例如:

server.example.com:/path/to/directory

如果需要为 HTTP 或 HTTPS 安装源指定代理,点击代理设置按钮。勾选启用 HTTP 代理并填写代理 URL。如果代理需要验证,勾选需要验证并输入你的帐户和密码。点击完成按钮以结束配置。

如果你的 HTTP 或 HTTPS 链接指向一个镜像站列表,在地址栏下方的勾选框打勾。

你还可以指定额外的安装源以访问更多的安装环境和附加组件。当配置完成后,所有可用的安装环境和附加组建都会显示在 软件包选择 页面。

要添加软件源,点击 + 按钮。要删除软件源,从列表上选择一项并点击 - 按钮。点击箭头图标回滚你的操作。要激活或反激活软件源,只需要在列表项目中勾选或反选 Enabled 栏目。

你可以使用该部分右侧的输入字段命名你的附加软件源并以与网络上的主软件源相同的方式对其进行配置。

当你完成了安装源的选择,点击左上角的完成按钮以回到 安装概览 页面。

软件包选择

软件包选择页面允许你选择一个软件包集和一些附加组件。被选中的软件包会在系统安装过程中被安装到你的系统。

这个页面当且仅当 安装来源 已经正确设置而且软安装程序已经成功从软件源获取软件包元数据。

要注意的是在一般的安装流程中,你只能选择我们定义好的软件包组合,而不能指定安装某个具体的软件包。如果你真的想这么做,你需要使用一个 Kickstart 文件并在 %packages 配置需要的软件包,详情请阅读 Kickstart 自动安装 教程。

可供选用的软件包集和附加组件取决于你的安装来源。在默认情况下起决定作用的就是你使用的安装媒体介质文件。Fedora Server 提供的软件包集和附加组件就和 Fedora Cloud 所提供的有所不同,当然你可以自由切换安装来源。

软件包选择页面。位于左侧
Figure 11. 软件包选择

要配置软件包选择,从页面左侧选择一个环境。只有选择了环境后才可以做下一步的定制。接下来,在页面右侧,你可以通过勾选列表上的内容来选择一个或多个的附加组件。

附加组件有两个类别,分隔线上方的附加组件与你选择的环境有关;选择不同的环境会有不同的额外组件可用。分隔线下方的附加组件和所选环境无关。

可用环境和附加组件由安装源的 comps.xml 文件定义(以 Fedora Server 安装 DVD 为例,这个文件位于 repodata/ 目录)。要了解每个环境和附加组件到底包含了什么软件包,可以查看这个文件。要了解更多信息,请阅读 这个页面

当你完成了软件包选择后,可以点击页面左上角的完成按钮回到 安装概览 页面。

安装目标

安装目标页面将允许你对储存设备进行配置,你可以选择将哪个设备用于 Fedora 的安装。你需要至少选择一个设备以完成安装。

要想了解 Linux 磁盘分区背后的理论知识,请阅读 推荐的安装方案 页面。

如果你需要使用一个已经包含一些数据的磁盘,例如你希望将 Microsoft Windows 的分区压缩并在剩余的空间上安装 Fedora ,或者你希望升级你的 Fedora ,务必对所有重要的数据做好备份。手动分区是有风险的,如果手动分区进程被中断或是无法完成(例如安装出错、电源中断等等),磁盘上已有的数据可能将无法恢复。

安装目标页面。共有两个本地磁盘可用
Figure 12. 安装目标

在页面的顶部,所有在本地可用的储存设备都会被列出来(包括 SATA、IDE 和 SCSI 硬盘、USB 驱动器等等)。在安装程序启动的时候本地储存设备就会被自动探测,在安装开始后才接入的设备不会被显示。

如果你需要添加额外的本地储存设备,你可以点击右下角的刷新按钮并按照对话框的指示操作。所有被探测的磁盘,包括新探测到的磁盘,都会在本地标准磁盘栏目被显示出来。

The Specialized & Network Disks section below shows advanced network storage (such as iSCSI and FCoE disks) currently configured. When you first open this screen, no such devices will be displayed because they cannot be automatically detected; to search for network storage devices, press Add a disk button and proceed with Installation Destination - Specialized & Network Disks. Any network storage you configure will then show up in the Specialized & Network Disks the same way local disks are shown above.

我们使用一个黑色实心圆为底的白色对勾标记将被用于安装的储存设备。没有被标记的设备将不会用于安装,自动分区的时候也会忽略这些设备,手动分区的时候这些设备也将会是不可用状态。

外接硬盘和闪存盘等 USB 储存设备也会在本地标准磁盘栏目显示,它们跟内部硬盘一样可在安装时供选择。除非你真的想这样做,否则务必 不要 将可卸载设备作为安装目标。如果你在可卸载设备上安装了 Fedora 并移除了设备,你的系统可能就不可用了。

安装目标页的磁盘选择栏目。这里显示了两块硬盘,右边的硬盘将会被使用
Figure 13. 未选择的和已选择的磁盘

在选择 Fedora 使用的硬盘后,从储存设定栏目中选择一项:

  • 自动 - 如果你选择了这一项,在点击页面左上角的完成按钮后,安装程序就会计算选择磁盘的可用空间,并创建合适的基于 Btrfs 的分区方案。具体的分区方案与你在使用 BIOS 模式还是使用 UEFI 模式有关,也跟磁盘可用的空间相关。我们不会创建基于磁盘的交换分区,而是会创建基于 ZRAM 的交换分区。

    在选择自动分区方案时,你可以选择是否让额外的空间可用。选择这个选项后你就可以从已有的分区中回收空间。例如说如果你的磁盘已经包含了一个不同的操作系统,你就可以通过压缩这个操作系统的分区以为 Fedora 留出更多储存空间。我们会在后面进一步说明回收空间功能。

  • 自定义 - 如果你选择了这一项,在点击页面左上角的完成按钮后,你就可以通过半手动配置的形式完成系统分区。这需要你了解磁盘分区背后的概念和理论知识,但是自定义分区将允许你以其他的方式安装系统。有关自定义分区的说明,请阅读 手动分区 页面。

  • 高级自定义 - 如果你选择了这一项,在点击页面左上角的完成按钮后,你将被要求对你的系统进行真正意义上的手动分区。这需要你熟悉磁盘分区背后的概念和理论知识,我们不会对你的操作作任何限制。

此外你还可以选择加密你的数据,这将使用 LUKS 加密所有的分区(除了用于系统引导的分区,如 /boot)。我们非常推荐你加密你的设备,请前往 https://docs.fedoraproject.org/ 阅读 Fedora 安全指引 以了解更多信息。

如果你丢失了 LUKS 密钥,你将无法访问加密的分区以及上面的数据。恢复丢失的密钥也是完全不可行的。然而,如果你是通过 Kickstart 进行的安装,你可以在安装的时候储存你的密钥并创建一个备用的密钥。阅读 使用 Kickstart 进行无人职守安装 页面了解更多信息。

要指定在哪个储存设备安装 引导程序 ,点击页面左下角的磁盘概览和引导器链接,并按照 安装引导程序 章节的说明进行操作。请注意大部分时候只需要使用默认配置就可以了,但有些时候(例如需要链式引导启动的时候)还是需要手动制定引导的设备。

在选择储存设备,指定自动分区还是手动分区,配置好磁盘加密和引导器位置后,点击左上角的完成按钮。然后根据你的选择,可能会有下面的情况发生:

  • 如果你选择加密你的磁盘,将会弹出一个对话框提示你对密钥进行设置,你只需要输入一次密钥,然后再输入一次密钥以确认你的输入无误即可。在你输入的时候,我们会检查密钥的强度并为你提出相关建议。要了解如果创建强密钥,请阅读 Fedora 安全手册

  • 如果你选择了自动分区且勾选希望额外空间可用,或者你的磁盘已经没有足够的空间可供安装 Fedora ,回收空间对话框就会出现。对话框将列举你选择的磁盘和磁盘上的所有探测到的分区,对话框右下角会显示目前可用的空间是多少以及安装系统至少需要多少的空间。

    如果你使用回收空间对话框来删除一个分区,这个分区上的所有数据都会被删除。如果你希望保留你的数据,你可以转而选择对分区进行压缩。

    首先,对可用设备和分区列表进行检查。对于每一项我们都会显示你可以回收多少的空间。要对空间进行回收,选择一个磁盘或分区,你可以点击删除按钮删除分区(或磁盘上的所有分区),或者点击压缩按钮以在利用分区空闲空间的同时保留原有的数据。你也可以点击右下角的全部删除按钮,这将会删除所有磁盘的所有分区并将腾出来的空间全部用于 Fedora 。但与此同时,所有磁盘上的数据都会被删除。

    当你为 Fedora 留出了足够多的空间,你就可以点击回收空间按钮以完成。

    安装概览 页点击开始安装按钮之前,你在回收空间对话框所做的操作都不会被实际地执行。

  • 如果你选择的是自定义分区选项,在点击完成后就会进入手动分区页面。你可以查看 手动分区 章节以了解更多有关信息。

引导程序安装

Fedora 使用 GRUB2 (GRand Unified Bootloader version 2)作为默认的引导程序。引导加载程序是计算机启动时运行的第一个程序,负责将计算机控制权交接给操作系统。 GRUB2 可以引导绝大多数的操作系统(包括 Microsoft Windows),也可以使用链式加载将将计算机控制权交接不受支持操作系统的引导程序。

GRUB2 有可能会覆盖你现有的引导程序。

If you have other operating systems already installed, the Fedora installer will attempt to automatically detect and configure the boot loader to start them. You can manually configure any additional operating systems after you finish the installation, if they are not detected properly. For instructions on editing GRUB2 configuration, see the Fedora System Administrator’s Guide.

如果你在多个硬盘上安装 Fedora,你可能希望指定在哪个硬盘上安装引导程序。在安装目标配置页面点击磁盘摘要和引导器按钮即可弹出磁盘选择的对话框。引导程序将会安装在你选择的设备上,如果你使用 UEFI 模式,在向导式磁盘分区的过程中 EFI 系统分区也会被创建。

磁盘选择对话框
Figure 14. 引导设备选择

In the Boot column, a “tick” icon marks one of the devices as the intended boot device. To change the boot device, select a device from the list and click the Set as Boot Device button to install the boot loader there instead. Only one device can be set as the boot device.

如果你不希望安装新的引导程序,请选择当前标记为引导的设备,然后单击不安装引导程序按钮。这样子 GRUB2 就不会在任何设备上安装。

如果你不安装引导程序,你可能无法正确引导系统,你可能需要其他的引导方式,例如其他独立的引导程序。只有你确定你有其他方式引导系统的时候才使用这个选项。

引导程序需要一个特定的分区,这取决于你在使用 BIOS 模式还是在使用 UEFI 模式,也取决于你在使用 GPT 分区表还是 MBR 分区表。如果你使用自动分区,安装程序会在必要的时候为你创建这些分区。详情请阅读 推荐的分区方案

Installation Destination - Specialized & Network Disks

This part of the Installation Destination screen allows you to configure non-local storage devices, namely iSCSI and FCoE storage. This section will mostly be useful to advanced users who have a need for networked disks. For instructions on setting up local hard drives, see Installation Destination.

This section only explains how to make existing network disks available inside the installer. It does not explain how to set up your network or a storage server, only how to connect to them.

A list of currently configured network storage devices
Figure 15. Installation Destination - Network Storage Filters

The screen contains a list of all currently available (discovered) network storage devices. When the screen is opened for the first time, the list will be empty in most cases because no network storage has been discovered - the installer makes no attempt at discovering this unless you configure network disks using a Kickstart file.

To add one or more storage devices to the screen so you can search them and use them in the installation, click Add iSCSI Target or Add FCoE SAN in the bottom right corner of the screen, and follow the instructions in Add iSCSI Target or Add FCoE SAN, depending on which type of network storage you want to add.

Network storage devices successfully discovered and configured by the installer will then be displayed in the main list, along with identifying information such as Name, WWID, Model and Target. To sort the list by a specific column (for example WWID), click the column’s heading.

On lower display resolutions, the list may be too wide to fit on the screen, and some of the columns or buttons may be hidden initially. Use the horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the list to move your view and see all available table columns and controls.

There are three tabs on the top of the list, which display different information:

Search

Displays all available devices, regardless of their type, and allows you to filter them either by their World Wide Identifier (WWID) or by the port, target, or logical unit number (LUN) at which they are accessed.

Multipath Devices

Storage devices accessible through more than one path, such as through multiple SCSI controllers or Fiber Channel ports on the same system.

The installation program only detects multipath storage devices with serial numbers that are 16 or 32 characters long.

Other SAN Devices

Devices available on a Storage Area Network (SAN).

Depending on the tab you are currently in, you can filter the discovered devices by using the Filter By field. Some of the filtering options are automatically populated based on discovered devices (for example, if you select Filter By: Vendor, another drop-down menu will appear showing all vendors of all discovered devices). Other filters require your input (for example when filtering by WWID), and present you with a text input field instead of a drop-down menu.

In the list (regardless of how it is filtered), each device is presented on a separate row, with a check box to its left. Mark the check box to make the device available during the installation process; this will cause this device (node) to be shown in the Specialized & Network Disks section in Installation Destination. There, you can select the disk as an installation target and proceed with either manual or automatic partitioning.

Devices that you select here are not automatically wiped by the installation process. Selecting a device on this screen does not, in itself, place data stored on the device at risk. Also note that any devices that you do not select here to form part of the installed system can be added to the system after installation by modifying the /etc/fstab file.

When you have selected the storage devices to make available during installation, click Done to return to Installation Destination.

Add iSCSI Target

To use iSCSI storage devices, the installer must be able to discover them as iSCSI targets and be able to create an iSCSI session to access them. Both of these steps may require a user name and password for Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) authentication.

You can also configure an iSCSI target to authenticate the iSCSI initiator on the system to which the target is attached (reverse CHAP), both for discovery and for the session. Used together, CHAP and reverse CHAP are called mutual CHAP or two-way CHAP. Mutual CHAP provides the greatest level of security for iSCSI connections, particularly if the user name and password are different for CHAP authentication and reverse CHAP authentication.

Follow the procedure below to add an iSCSI storage target to your system.

Add iSCSI Target
  1. Click the Add iSCSI Target button in the bottom right corner of the Installation Destination - Specialized & Network Disks screen. A new dialog window titled Add iSCSI Storage Target will open.

  2. Enter the IP address of the iSCSI target in the Target IP Address field.

  3. Provide a name in the iSCSI Initiator Name field for the iSCSI initiator in iSCSI Qualified Name (IQN) format. A valid IQN entry contains:

    • The string iqn. (including the period).

    • A date code specifying the year and month in which your organization’s Internet domain or subdomain name was registered, represented as four digits for the year, a dash, and two digits for the month, followed by a period. For example, represent September 2010 as 2010-09.

    • Your organization’s Internet domain or subdomain name, presented in reverse order (with the top-level domain first). For example, represent the subdomain storage.example.com as com.example.storage.

    • A colon (:) followed by a string which uniquely identifies this particular iSCSI initiator within your domain or subdomain. For example, :diskarrays-sn-a8675309

      A complete IQN will therefore look as follows:

      iqn.2010-09.com.example.storage:diskarrays-sn-a8675309

      An example using the correct format is also displayed below the input field for reference.

      For more information about IQNs, see 3.2.6. iSCSI Names in RFC 3720 - Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI), available from https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3720#section-3.2.6 and 1. iSCSI Names and Addresses in RFC 3721 - Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) Naming and Discovery, available from https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3721#section-1.

  4. Specify the type of authentication to use for iSCSI discovery using the Discovery Authentication Type drop-down menu. Depending on which type of authentication you selected, additional input fields (such as CHAP Username and CHAP Password may then become visible. Fill in your authentication credentials; these should be provided by your organization.

  5. Click the Start Discovery button. The installer will now attempt to discover an iSCSI target based on the information you provided, and if the target requires CHAP or reverse CHAP authentication, it will attempt to use the credentials you provided. This process may take some time (generally less than 30 seconds), depending on your network.

    If the discovery was not successful, an error message will be displayed in the dialog window. This message will vary based on which part of the discovery failed. If the installer did not find the target you specified at all, you should check the IP address; if the problem is an authentication error, make sure you entered all CHAP and reverse CHAP credentials correctly and that you have access to the iSCSI target.

    The No nodes discovered error message may also mean that all nodes on the address you specified are already configured. During discovery, Anaconda ignores nodes which have already been added.

    If the discovery was successful, you will see a list of all discovered nodes.

  6. Select one or more nodes you want to log in to by marking or unmarking the check box next to each node discovered on the target. Below the list, select again the type of authentication you want to use; you can also select the Use the credentials from discovery option if the CHAP/reverse CHAP user name and password you used to discover the target are also valid for logging in to it.

    After selecting all nodes you want to use, click Log In to initiate an iSCSI session. Anaconda will attempt to log in to all selected nodes. If the login process is successful, the Add iSCSI Storage Target dialog will close, and all nodes you have configured will now be shown in the list of network disks in Installation Destination - Specialized & Network Disks.

You can repeat this procedure to discover additional iSCSI targets, or to add more nodes from a previously configured target. However, note that once you click the Start Discovery button for the first time, you will not be able to change the iSCSI Initiator Name. If you made an error when configuring the initiator name, you must restart the installation.

Add FCoE SAN

The following procedure explains how to add Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) storage devices and make them available during the installation:

Add FCoE Target
  1. Click the Add FCoE SAN button in the bottom right corner of Installation Destination - Specialized & Network Disks. A new dialog window will open.

  2. Select the network interface (NIC) which is connected to your FCoE switch from the drop-down menu. Note that this network interface must be configured and connected - see Network & Hostname.

  3. Below the NIC drop-down menu are two choices:

    Use DCB

    Data Center Bridging (DCB) is a set of enhancements to the Ethernet protocols designed to increase the efficiency of Ethernet connections in storage networks and clusters. This option should only be enabled for network interfaces that require a host-based DCBX client. Configurations on interfaces that implement a hardware DCBX client should leave this check box empty.

    Use auto vlan

    This option indicates whether VLAN discovery should be performed. If this box is checked, then the FCoE Initiation Protocol (FIP) VLAN discovery protocol will run on the Ethernet interface once the link configuration has been validated. If they are not already configured, network interfaces for any discovered FCoE VLANs will be automatically created and FCoE instances will be created on the VLAN interfaces. This option is enabled by default.

  4. After you select which interface and options to use, click Add FCoE Disk(s). Discovered FCoE storage devices will be displayed under the Other SAN Devices tab in Installation Destination - Specialized & Network Disks.

Manual Partitioning

The Manual Partitioning screen allows you to create a storage configuration for your Fedora system manually, giving you a greater control over your system’s storage.

In most other installers for both Linux and other operating systems, disk partitioning usually takes a “bottom-up” approach. In these installers, you first create underlying devices such as LVM physical volumes, then you create a layout such as LVM on top of them, then you create file systems on top of logical volumes, and the last step is usually assigning a mount point to each volume as needed.

Anaconda uses an opposite approach. First, you create all separate mount points you need, and everything needed to create them (creating a volume group, logical volumes inside it, and physical volumes where the volume group will reside) is performed automatically. You can then adjust the automatic settings as you require.

No permanent changes will be made to your disks during the actual partitioning process. The configuration you have selected will only be written to your system after you press the Begin installation button in Installation Summary.

The Manual Partitioning screen. At this point
Figure 16. Manual Partitioning

When you first open the Manual Partitioning screen, the column on the left side will display all previously existing partitions on all drives which you selected as installation targets in Installation Destination. If none of the selected drives contain any existing partitions, then a message informing you that no mount points currently exist will appear.

Here, you can choose a partitioning scheme such as LVM or BTRFS and click the Click here to create them automatically to prompt the installer to create a basic partitioning layout; this layout follows the guidelines described in Recommended Partitioning Scheme. The created layout is a basic layout where partition/volume sizes are determined automatically based on the total amount of available space.

Click the + button to add a mount point. In the dialog window that opens, choose a mount point such as / or /home, and the desired capacity for the mount point (such as 10GB or 500MB). Note that specifying the mount point is mandatory, but you do not have to specify the capacity at this point; this is useful when adding a mount point which you want to make larger than the current available space permits. Then, click Add mount point to add it to the list using the default settings, which means it will be created as a logical volume, and a new volume group will be created for it unless one already exists.

Then, select the newly created mount point in the list on the left side. A set of controls will display on the right side of the screen, allowing you to change its mount point, the device on which it will physically reside, its capacity, file system, etc. When you change any settings, press Update Settings on the bottom right. This will save the adjusted configuration; you can now create another mount point, or select a different existing one and adjust its settings as well.

For a description of available device and file system types, see Device, File System and RAID Types.

To remove a mount point, select it in the list and press the - button below.

The exact steps for configuring your storage depend on your specific needs and your system configuration. Procedures for creating specific layouts are described further in this chapter. Before you start, you should also review Recommended Partitioning Scheme and Advice on Partitions for a list of requirements and tips for partitioning your disks for Fedora.

Below the list of existing mount points are two fields, showing you how much free space is left on your storage devices and how much total space they have.

Click the X storage devices selected to view a summary of currently selected storage devices; this may help you with orientation in more complicated storage schemas. Devices displayed here are the ones you have selected in Installation Destination. If you want to add or remove any storage devices from your configuration, return to that screen and change your selection.

You can press the Reset All button in the bottom right corner at any time to reset the storage configuration to the state it was in when you last opened the Manual Partitioning screen. This means that if you modify the storage configuration, leave the screen, and then come back, the Reset button will reset the configuration back to the already modified state, discarding only the changes you have made recently, not all changes to the storage configuration since you booted the installer.

To discard all changes, and to also detect any new drives which have not been detected when the installer started (usually when you attached a new drive after you started), press the button marked by a circular arrow in the set of controls below the list of mount points on the left side of the screen. In the dialog window that opens, press Rescan Disks and wait until the scanning process completes. Then, press OK to return to Installation Destination; all detected disks including any new ones will be displayed in the Local Standard Disks section.

The Rescan Disks dialog
Figure 17. Rescan Disks

After you finish configuring your system storage, press Done in the top left corner to save the configuration and return to the Installation Summary screen. At this point, the installer will check if your storage configuration is valid. If an error was detected, a message will be displayed at the bottom of the screen. Click the message to open a dialog window explaining what kind of error has been detected (for example, you put /boot on a Btrfs subvolume, or you did not create a BIOS Boot partition when your system requires one).

If such a message is displayed, go back and fix any issues found by the installer; otherwise you will not be able to proceed with the installation. You can also press Done again to return to the Installation Summary anyway, but a storage configuration error will prevent you from starting the actual installation process.

If no error message is displayed and if you made any changes since the last time you have visited this screen, a summary dialog will appear, displaying a detailed list of the changes you made. Review the list and click Accept Changes to proceed with Installation Summary, or click Cancel & Return to Custom Partitioning if you want to make any more changes.

Creating Standard Partitions

Standard partitions are the most common type of partition, with the widest support across operating systems. For example, Microsoft Windows uses exclusively physical partitions and cannot natively work with LVM or Btrfs. Most Fedora partitioning setups will also require at least one standard partition for the /boot directory, and possibly also another standard partition with the BIOS Boot or EFI System file system to store the boot loader.

See An Introduction to Disk Partitions for additional information about the concepts behind physical partitions.

The Manual Partitioning screen
Figure 18. Create Standard Partition

Follow the procedure below to create mount points on standard physical partitions:

Creating Standard Partitions
  1. Click the + button at the bottom of the list showing existing mount points. A new dialog window will open.

  2. In the new dialog window, specify a mount point for which you want to create a separate mount point - for example, /. Optionally, specify a size for the partition using standard units such as MB or GB (for example, 50GB). Then, click Add mount point to add the mount point and return to the main partitioning screen.

    When creating a swap partition, specify the mount point as swap. For a BIOS Boot partition, use biosboot. For an EFI System Partition, use /boot/efi.

    For information about these partition types, see Recommended Partitioning Scheme.

  3. The mount point has now been created using the default settings, which means it has been created as an LVM logical volume. Select the newly created mount point in the left pane to configure it further, and convert it to a physical partition by changing the Device Type option to Standard Partition. Then, click Update Settings in the bottom right corner of the screen.

  4. In the Device(s) section on the right side of the screen, you can see that the partition has been assigned to one or more hard drives. Click the Modify button to configure on which drive this partition will be created.

  5. In the Configure Mount Point dialog, you can specify which physical devices (disks) this volume may reside on. You can select one or more disks which will be used to hold this volume by holding down Ctrl and clicking each disk in the list. If you select multiple disks here, Anaconda will determine where exactly the partition should be created based on how you configured the rest of the installation. If you want to make sure that this partition is placed on a specific hard drive, select only that drive and unselect all others.

    After you finish configuring the partition’s location, click Save to return to the main Manual Partitioning screen.

  6. Configure other settings specific to the partition - its Mount Point, Desired Capacity, and File System. Press Update Settings to apply any changes to the configuration.

Repeat this procedure for any additional standard partitions you want to create.

Creating Software RAID

Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs) are constructed from multiple storage devices that are arranged to provide increased performance and, in some configurations, greater fault tolerance. See Device, File System and RAID Types for a description of different kinds of RAIDs.

A RAID device is created in one step, and disks are added or removed as necessary. One RAID partition per physical disk is allowed for each device, so the number of disks available to the installation program determines which levels of RAID device are available to you. For example, if your system has two hard drives, the installation program will not allow you to create a RAID10 device, which requires 4 separate partitions.

This section only explains how to create software RAID with standard (physical) partitions. However, you can also configure LVM volume groups and Btrfs volumes to use RAID and place their logical volumes or Btrfs subvolumes on top of this RAID array. See Creating a Logical Volume Management (LVM) Layout and Creating a Btrfs Layout for instructions on creating RAID in LVM and Btrfs.

The Manual Partitioning screen
Figure 19. Create Software RAID

RAID configuration options are only visible if you have selected two or more disks for installation. At least two disks are required to create a RAID device, and some RAID layouts will require more. Requirements for different types of RAID are described in Device, File System and RAID Types.

Follow the procedure below to create software RAID:

Creating Software RAID
  1. Click the + button at the bottom of the list showing existing mount points. A new dialog window will open.

  2. In the new dialog window, specify a mount point for which you want to create a separate software RAID partition - for example, /. Optionally, specify a size for the new partition using standard units such as MB or GB (for example, 50GB). Then, click Add mount point to add the mount point and return to the main partitioning screen.

    When creating a mount point for swap on software RAID, specify the mount point as swap.

  3. The mount point has now been created using the default settings, which means it has been created as an LVM logical volume. Select the newly created mount point in the left pane to configure it further, and convert it to a software RAID partition by changing the Device Type option to RAID.

  4. Choose a RAID type from the RAID Level drop-down menu. Available RAID types and their requirements are described in Device, File System and RAID Types.

  5. In the Device(s) section on the right side of the screen, you can see that the partition has been assigned to several physical disks. Click the Modify button to configure on which drives this partition will be created.

  6. In the Configure Mount Point dialog, you can specify which physical devices (disks) this partition may reside on. You can select one or more disks which will be used to hold this partition by holding down Ctrl and clicking each disk in the list. If you want to make sure that this partition is placed on a specific set of hard drives, select only those drives and unselect all others.

    After you finish configuring the partition’s location, click Save to return to the main Manual Partitioning screen.

  7. Configure other settings specific to the partition - its Mount Point, Desired Capacity, and File System. Press Update Settings to apply any changes to the configuration.

Repeat this procedure for any additional standard partitions with software RAID you want to create.

Creating a Logical Volume Management (LVM) Layout

Logical Volume Management (LVM) presents a simple logical view of underlying physical storage space, such as hard drives or LUNs. Partitions on physical storage are represented as physical volumes that can be grouped together into volume groups. Each volume group can be divided into multiple logical volumes, each of which is analogous to a standard disk partition. Therefore, LVM logical volumes function as partitions which can span multiple physical disks.

See Understanding LVM for additional information about the concepts behind Logical Volume Management.

Some partition types - notably the /boot directory and the BIOS Boot and EFI partitions - cannot be placed on logical volumes. Use standard physical volumes for them. See Recommended Partitioning Scheme for more information.

The Manual Partitioning screen
Figure 20. Create LVM Logical Volume

Follow the procedure below to create LVM logical volumes and volume groups.

Creating LVM Logical Volumes and Groups
  1. Click the + button at the bottom of the list showing existing mount points. A new dialog window will open.

  2. In the new dialog window, specify a mount point for which you want to create a separate logical volume - for example, /. Optionally, specify a size for the volume using standard units such as MB or GB (for example, 50GB). Then, click Add mount point to add the volume and return to the main partitioning screen.

    When creating a mount point for swap on LVM, specify the mount point as swap.

  3. The mount point has now been created using the default settings, which means it has been created as an LVM logical volume, and a volume group has been created to contain it. Select the newly created mount point in the left pane to configure it further. If you want to use thin provisioning for this volume, change the Device Type option to LVM Thin Provisioning.

  4. In the Volume Group menu, you can see that the volume has been assigned to an automatically created volume group, which is named after the Fedora variant you are installing (for example, fedora-server. Click the Modify button under the drop-down menu to access the volume group settings.

  5. In the Configure Volume Group dialog, you can change the volume group’s name, its RAID level (see Device, File System and RAID Types for information about available RAID types), and you can also specify which physical devices (disks) this volume group should reside on. You can select one or more disks which will be used to hold this volume group by holding down Ctrl and clicking each disk in the list.

    If you select a redundant RAID type (such as RAID1 (Redundancy)), the volume group will take up twice its actual size on your disks. A 5 GB volume group with RAID1 will take up 10 GB of space.

    You can also make sure that the volume group is encrypted by selecting the Encrypt option; this will enable LUKS encryption for the entire volume group. See the Fedora Security Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/, for information about LUKS disk encryption.

    Additionally, you can set a fixed size for the volume group by selecting the Fixed option from the Size policy menu and entering a size for the volume group.

    After you finish configuring the volume group settings, click Save to return to the main Manual Partitioning screen.

    The configuration dialog does not allow you to specify the size of the volume group’s physical extents. The size will always be set to the default value of 4 MiB. If you want to create a volume group with different physical extents, create it manually by switching to an interactive shell and using the vgcreate command, or use a Kickstart file with the volgroup --pesize=size command.

  6. If you need to create more than one volume group, open the Volume Group drop-down menu and select the Create a new volume group option. A new dialog window will open, identical to the one described in the previous step. Again, select a name, storage devices, encryption settings, RAID level and size policy for the new group, and click Save. The new volume group will then become available in the Volume Group drop-down menu; you can then go through your existing mount points and change this setting to assign them to a different volume group.

  7. Configure other settings specific to the logical volume - its Mount Point, Desired Capacity, File System, and Name. Press Update Settings to apply any changes to the configuration.

Repeat this procedure for any additional logical volumes you want to create. Note that when creating additional LVM logical volumes, a new volume group is not automatically created each time; instead, any additional volumes are assigned to an existing group.

For each mount point you create, review its settings and make sure that it is assigned to the correct group, that it has sufficient capacity, and that it has a descriptive name so you can identify the volume later if you need to.

Creating a Btrfs Layout

Btrfs is a type of file system, but it has several features characteristic of a storage device. It is designed to make the file system tolerant of errors, and to facilitate the detection and repair of errors when they occur. It uses checksums to ensure the validity of data and metadata, and supports snapshots that can be used for backup, replication, and namespace isolation (e.g. for use in containers).

Creating a Btrfs layout is somewhat similar to LVM (described in Creating a Logical Volume Management (LVM) Layout) with slightly different terminology. A Btrfs volume is the equivalent of an LVM volume group, and a Btrfs subvolume is similar to a LVM logical volume. An important difference to note is how Anaconda reports sizes for separate mount points: For LVM, the exact size of each logical volume is shown next to each mount point in the left pane, while with Btrfs, the total size of the entire volume is shown next to each subvolume.

Some partition types - notably the BIOS Boot and EFI partitions - cannot be placed on Btrfs subvolumes. Use standard physical volumes for them. See Recommended Partitioning Scheme for more information.

The Manual Partitioning screen
Figure 21. Create Btrfs Subvolume

Follow the procedure below to create Btrfs volumes and subvolumes:

Creating Btrfs Subvolumes and Volumes
  1. Click the + button at the bottom of the list showing existing mount points. A new dialog window will open.

  2. In the new dialog window, specify a mount point for which you want to create a separate subvolume - for example, /. Anaconda will create a Btrfs subvolume for each mount point you create. Similar to directories, subvolumes have no discrete size of their own. Finally, click Add mount point to add the subvolume and return to the main partitioning screen.

    When creating a mount point for swap on Btrfs, specify the mount point as swap.

  3. Once the mount point is created, select the newly created mount point in the left pane, and configure it further in the right pane. When finished, click Update Settings in the bottom right corner of the screen.

  4. In the Volume area, you can see that the mount point’s subvolume has been assigned to an automatically created volume. Click the Modify button under the drop-down menu to access the configure volume settings.

  5. In the Configure Volume dialog, you can change the volume’s name, whether it’s encrypted, its RAID level (see Device, File System and RAID Types for information about available RAID types), and you can also specify which physical devices (disks) this volume should reside on. You can select one or more disks which will be used to hold this volume by holding down Ctrl and clicking each disk in the list.

    The installer supports LUKS encryption of entire Btrfs volumes. To enable, click on the Modify button under Volume. Then check Encrypt. See the Fedora Security Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/, for information about LUKS disk encryption.

    Additionally, you can set a fixed size for the volume by selecting the Fixed option from the Size policy menu and entering a size for the volume group.

    After you finish configuring the Btrfs volume settings, click Save to return to the main Manual Partitioning screen.

  6. If you need to create more than one Btrfs volume, open the Volume drop-down menu and select the Create a new volume option. A new dialog window will open, identical to the one described in the previous step. Again, select a name, storage devices, encryption settings, RAID level and size policy for the new volume, and click Save. The new volume will then become available in the Volume drop-down menu; you can then go through your existing mount points and change this setting to assign them to a different volume.

  7. Configure other settings specific to the subvolume - its Mount Point, Device Type, and Name. Press Update Settings to apply any changes to the configuration.

Repeat this procedure for any additional Btrfs subvolumes you want to create. Note that when creating additional subvolumes, a new volume is not automatically created each time; instead, any additional subvolumes are assigned to an existing volume.

For each mount point you create, review its settings and make sure that it is assigned to the correct volume, that it has sufficient capacity, and that it has a descriptive name so you can identify the subvolume.

Device, File System and RAID Types

Fedora supports multiple types of devices and file systems. The lists below offer a short description of each available device, file system and RAID type and notes on their usage.

To select a device type or a file system of a partition or a logical volume, select it in the list in Manual Partitioning and select a Device Type and a File System from their respective drop-down menus on the right side of the screen. Then, click Update Settings and repeat this process for all mount points you want to modify.

To configure software RAID, make sure that you have enough physical hard drives selected as installation targets (the number of separate drives required for each type of RAID is noted in its description). Then, choose a RAID level when creating or modifying a Btrfs volume or LVM volume group, or select Software RAID as the device type to create software RAID with standard partitions. For detailed instructions, see Creating a Btrfs Layout, Creating a Logical Volume Management (LVM) Layout, and Creating Software RAID as needed.

Device Types
  • Standard Partition - A standard partition can contain a file system or swap space. Standard partitions are most commonly used for /boot and the BIOS Boot and EFI System partitions. LVM logical volumes or Btrfs subvolumes are recommended for most other uses. See An Introduction to Disk Partitions for additional information about the concepts behind physical partitions.

  • LVM - Choosing LVM as the Device Type creates an LVM logical volume and a volume group to contain it (unless one already exists, in which case the new volume is assigned to the existing group). LVM can improve performance when using physical disks and allows you to use multiple disks for a single mount point. For information on how to create a logical volume, see Creating a Logical Volume Management (LVM) Layout. Also see Understanding LVM for some additional information about LVM in general.

  • LVM Thin Provisioning - Using thin provisioning, you can manage a storage pool of free space, known as a thin pool, which can be allocated to an arbitrary number of devices when needed by applications. The thin pool can be expanded dynamically when needed for cost-effective allocation of storage space.

  • RAID - Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a software RAID device. One RAID partition is assigned to each disk on the system. See Creating Software RAID for instructions on creating software RAID.

  • BTRFS - Btrfs is a file system with several device-like features. It is capable of addressing and managing more files, larger files, and larger volumes than the ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems. See Creating a Btrfs Layout for more information about creating Btrfs volumes.

File Systems
  • ext4 - The ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number of improvements. These include support for larger file systems and larger files, faster and more efficient allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of subdirectories within a directory, faster file system checking, and more robust journaling. Ext4 is the default and recommended file system used by Fedora Workstation and Cloud. The maximum supported size of a single ext4 file system is 50 TB.

  • ext3 - The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage - journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a crash, as there is no need to check the file system for metadata consistency by running the fsck utility every time a crash occurs.

  • ext2 - An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types, including regular files, directories, or symbolic links. It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.

  • swap - Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. A swap partition should always be created; see Recommended Partitioning Scheme for details such as the recommended size.

  • xfs - XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports file systems up to 16 exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8 exabytes (approximately 8 million terabytes), and directory structures containing tens of millions of entries. XFS also supports metadata journaling, which facilitates quicker crash recovery. The maximum supported size of a single XFS file system is 500 TB. Starting with Fedora 22, XFS is the default and recommended file system on Fedora Server.

    Note that the size of an XFS file system cannot currently be reduced without destroying and recreating the file system. If you expect that you will need to adjust the sizes of your file systems often, using XFS is not recommended, as it makes administration substantially more time-consuming.

  • vfat - The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows long file names on the FAT file system.

  • BIOS Boot - A very small partition required for booting from a device with a GUID partition table (GPT) on BIOS systems and UEFI systems in BIOS compatibility mode. See Recommended Partitioning Scheme for details.

  • EFI System Partition - A small partition required for booting a device with a GUID partition table (GPT) on a UEFI system. See Recommended Partitioning Scheme for details.

Software RAID Types
  • RAID0 (Performance) - Distributes data across multiple disks. Level 0 RAID offers increased performance over standard partitions and can be used to pool the storage of multiple disks into one large virtual device. Note that Level 0 RAIDs offer no redundancy and that the failure of one device in the array destroys data in the entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two disks.

  • RAID1 (Redundancy) - Mirrors all data from one partition onto one or more other disks. Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy. RAID 1 requires at least two disks.

  • RAID4 (Error Checking) - Distributes data across multiple disks and uses one disk in the array to store parity information which safeguards the array in case any disk within the array fails. Because all parity information is stored on one disk, access to this disk creates a “bottleneck” in the array’s performance. Level 4 RAID requires at least three disks.

  • RAID5 (Distributed Error Checking) - Distributes data and parity information across multiple disks. Level 5 RAIDs therefore offer the performance advantages of distributing data across multiple disks, but do not share the performance bottleneck of level 4 RAIDs because the parity information is also distributed through the array. RAID 5 requires at least three disks.

  • RAID6 (Redundant Error Checking) - Level 6 RAIDs are similar to level 5 RAIDs, but instead of storing only one set of parity data, they store two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four disks.

  • RAID10 (Performance, Redundancy) - Level 10 RAIDs are nested RAIDs or hybrid RAIDs. They are constructed by distributing data over mirrored sets of disks. For example, a level 10 RAID array constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two mirrored pairs of striped partitions. RAID 10 requires at least four disks.

In most cases, at least the following mount points should always be created:

/boot - 1 GB

This partition contains the operating system kernel, which allows Fedora to boot. It also contains other files used during the bootstrap process. Due to the limitations of most firmware, creating a separate, small standard partition for this directory is recommended. In most scenarios, a 1 GB /boot partition is adequate.

If your system has a hardware RAID controller, be aware that some BIOS types do not support booting from it. In that case, the /boot partition must be created on a partition outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive.

Also note that the /boot directory cannot be placed on a LVM logical volume. Use a standard partition.

/ (root) - 25 GB

This is where the root directory is located. The root directory is the top level of the directory structure. By default, all files are written to this partition unless a different partition is mounted in the path being written to (for example, /boot or /home). If you follow the recommended scheme described in this section, this will be the partition where most software packages will be installed.

For a minimal installation, a 10 GB root partition will be sufficient. However, for most common installations which include extra packages and a graphical user interface, the root partition should be at least 25 GB; with 75 GB being sufficient for most common use cases.

The / mount point is the top of the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy, and is referred to as the root file system, or root. The /root directory, sometimes pronounced “slash-root”, is the home directory for the root user.

/home - at least 10 GB

To store user data separately from system data, create a dedicated mount point for the /home directory. This partition should be sized based on the amount of data that will be stored locally, number of users, and so on. This will allow you to upgrade or reinstall Fedora without erasing user data files. During the installation, a separate /home partition will be created if there are 50 GB or more free space for your Fedora installation.

When using Fedora as a workstation for normal use with a graphical environment, this mount point should have the most disk space assigned to it, as it will likely hold the most data (user settings, images, videos, etc).

swap - based on your system parameters

Swap partitions support virtual memory; data is written to them when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. This partition’s size is a function of system memory workload, not total system memory, and therefore is not equal to the total system memory size. Therefore, it is important to analyze what applications a system will be running and the load those applications will serve in order to determine the system memory workload. Application providers and developers should be able to provide some guidance.

When the system runs out of swap space, the kernel terminates processes as the system RAM memory is exhausted. Configuring too much swap space results in storage devices being allocated but idle and is a poor use of resources. Too much swap space can also hide memory leaks. The maximum size for a swap partition and other additional information can be found in the mkswap(8) man page.

Beginning with Fedora 33, disk-based swap is no longer created by default. Instead, ZRAM-based swap is automatically used. See man zram-generator and man zram-generator.conf for more information. Should you choose to create disk-based swap, you will have two swap devices: disk-based with a lower priority, and ZRAM-based with a higher priority.

The table below provides the recommended size of a swap partition depending on the amount of RAM in your system and whether you want sufficient memory for your system to hibernate. If you let the installation program partition your system automatically, the swap partition size will be established using these guidelines. Automatic partitioning setup assumes hibernation is not in use, and the maximum size of the swap partition is limited to 10% of the total size of the hard drive. If you want to set up enough swap space to allow for hibernation, or if you want to set the swap partition size to more than 10% of the system’s storage space, you must edit the partitioning layout manually.

Table 2. Recommended System Swap Space
Amount of RAM in the system Recommended swap space Recommended swap space if allowing for hibernation

less than 2 GB

2 times the amount of RAM

3 times the amount of RAM

2 GB - 8 GB

Equal to the amount of RAM

2 times the amount of RAM

8 GB - 64 GB

0.5 times the amount of RAM

1.5 times the amount of RAM

more than 64 GB

workload dependent

hibernation not recommended

At the border between each range listed above (for example, a system with 2 GB, 8 GB, or 64 GB of system RAM), discretion can be exercised with regard to chosen swap space and hibernation support. If your system resources allow for it, increasing the swap space may lead to better performance.

Distributing swap space over multiple storage devices - particularly on systems with fast drives, controllers and interfaces - also improves swap space performance.

BIOS Boot (1 MB) or EFI System Partition (200 MB)

The GRUB2 boot loader can be installed either in the Master Boot Record (MBR) or the GUID Partition Table (GPT) of the boot device. In order to determine which of these methods to use, the installation program considers the following variations:

Systems with BIOS firmware and UEFI systems in BIOS compatibility mode

If the disk is already formatted, the partitioning scheme is retained. If the disk is not formatted, or you have erased all existing partitions from the disk, the installer will choose the following:

  • MBR if the size of the disk is less than 2 TB (terabytes)

  • GPT if the size of the disk is more than 2 TB

    You can force the installer to use GPT on disks smaller than 2 TB by using the inst.gpt boot option as described in Boot Options. However, the opposite is not possible - you cannot use MBR on disks larger than 2 TB.

    You need to create a BIOS Boot partition with a size of 1 MB to install on a system with BIOS firmware if the disk containing the boot loader uses GPT. If the disk uses a MBR, no special partition is necessary on a BIOS system.

Systems with UEFI firmware

Only GPT is allowed on UEFI systems. In order to install on a formatted disk with a MBR, it must be reformated and relabeled. All data currently on the disk will be lost.

UEFI-based systems require an EFI System Partition at least 50 MB in size (recommended size is 200 MB), regardless of the partitioning scheme.

If your system requires either a BIOS Boot partition or an EFI System Partition based on the requirements detailed above, this partition must be created as a standard physical partition. It cannot reside on an LVM volume or a Btrfs subvolume.

Also note that if your system does not require any of these partitions, they will not be shown in the File System menu in mount point options.

Many systems have more partitions than the minimum listed above. Choose partitions based on your particular needs. See Advice on Partitions for additional information and advice.

Only assign storage capacity to those partitions you require immediately. You may allocate free space at any time, to meet needs as they occur.

If you are not sure how best to configure the partitions for your computer, accept the automatic default partition layout provided by the installation program as described in Installation Destination.

Advice on Partitions

There is no best way to partition every system; the optimal setup depends on how you plan to use the system being installed. However, the following tips may help you find the optimal layout for your needs:

  • Consider encrypting any partitions and volumes which might contain sensitive data. Encryption prevents unauthorized people from accessing the data on the partitions, even if they have access to the physical storage device. In most cases, you should at least encrypt the /home partition, which contains user data.

  • In some cases, creating separate mount points for directories other than /, /boot and /home may be useful; for example, on a server running a MySQL database, having a separate mount point for /var/lib/mysql will allow you to preserve the database during a reinstallation without having to restore it from backup afterwards. However, having unnecessary separate mount points will make storage administration more difficult.

  • Some special restrictions apply to certain directories with regards on which partitioning layouts can they be placed. Notably, the /boot directory must always be on a physical partition (not on an LVM volume or a Btrfs subvolume), and /usr cannot be on a Btrfs subvolume.

  • If you are new to Linux, consider reviewing the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard at https://refspecs.linuxfoundation.org/FHS_2.3/fhs-2.3.html for information about various system directories and their contents.

  • Each kernel installed on your system requires approximately 20 MB on the /boot partition. The default partition size of 500 MB for /boot should suffice for most common uses; increase the size of this partition if you plan to keep many kernels installed at the same time.

  • The /var directory holds content for a number of applications, including the Apache web server, and is used by the DNF package manager to temporarily store downloaded package updates. Make sure that the partition or volume containing /var has at least 3 GB.

  • The contents of the /var directory usually change very often. This may cause problems with older solid state drives (SSDs), as they can handle a lower number of read/write cycles before becoming unusable. If your system root is on an SSD, consider creating a separate mount point for /var on a classic (platter) HDD.

  • The /usr directory holds the majority of software on a typical Fedora installation. The partition or volume containing this directory should therefore be at least 5 GB for minimal installations, and at least 10 GB for installations with a graphical environment.

  • If /usr or /var is partitioned separately from the rest of the root volume, the boot process becomes much more complex because these directories contain boot-critical components. In some situations, such as when these directories are placed on an iSCSI drive or an FCoE location, the system may either be unable to boot, or it may hang with a Device is busy error when powering off or rebooting.

    This limitation only applies to /usr or /var, not to directories below them. For example, a separate partition for /var/www will work without issues.

  • Consider leaving a portion of the space in an LVM volume group unallocated. This unallocated space gives you flexibility if your space requirements change but you do not wish to remove data from other volumes. You can also select the Thin provisioning device type for the partition to have the unused space handled automatically by the volume.

  • The size of an XFS file system cannot be reduced - if you need to make a partition or volume with this file system smaller, you must back up your data, destroy the file system, and create a new, smaller one in its place. Therefore, if you expect needing to manipulate your partitioning layout later, you should use the ext4 file system instead.

  • Use Logical Volume Management (LVM) if you anticipate expanding your storage by adding more hard drives after the installation. With LVM, you can create physical volumes on the new drives, and then assign them to any volume group and logical volume as you see fit - for example, you can easily expand your system’s /home (or any other directory residing on a logical volume).

  • Creating a BIOS Boot partition or an EFI System Partition may be necessary, depending on your system’s firmware, boot drive size, and boot drive disk label. See Recommended Partitioning Scheme for information about these partitions. Note that the graphical installer will not let you create a BIOS Boot or EFI System Partition if your system does not require one - in that case, they will be hidden from the menu.

  • If you need to make any changes to your storage configuration after the installation, Fedora repositories offer several different tools which can help you do this. If you prefer a command line tool, try system-storage-manager.

Kdump

This screen is disabled by default. To enable it during the installation, you must use the inst.kdump_addon=on option at the boot menu. See Advanced Installation Options for details, and The Boot Menu for instructions on using custom boot options.

Use this screen to select whether or not Kdump will be activated on the installed system, and how much memory will be reserved for it if enabled.

The Kdump configuration screen
Figure 22. Kdump

Kdump is a kernel crash dumping mechanism which, in the event of a system crash, captures the contents of the system memory at the moment of failure. This captured memory can then be analyzed to find the cause of the crash. If Kdump is enabled, it must have a small portion of the system’s memory (RAM) reserved to itself. This reserved memory will not be accessible to the main kernel.

To enable Kdump on the installed system, check Enable kdump. Then, enter the amount of memory to be reserved in megabytes into the Memory To Be Reserved field.

The amount of memory which you should reserve is determined based on your system’s architecture (AMD64 and Intel 64 will have different requirements than IBM Power, for example) as well as the total amount of system memory. In most cases, automatic reservation will be satisfactory. If you insist on manual settings, see the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Kernel Crash Dump Guide for guidelines. This document also contains more in-depth information about how Kdump works, how to configure additional settings, and how to analyze a saved crash dump.

The Usable System Memory readout below the reservation input field shows how much memory will be accessible to your main system once your selected amount of RAM is reserved.

Additional settings, such as the location where kernel crash dumps will be saved, can only be configured after the installation using either the system-config-kdump graphical interface, or manually in the /etc/kdump.conf configuration file.

After configuring Kdump settings, click Done in the top left corner to return to Installation Summary.

网络与主机名

网络与主机名页面允许你对网络进行配置。这个页面提供的选项无论是在安装期间(当需要从远程位置下载软件包的时候)还是在安装之后都是可用的。

网络配置是一个广泛的主题,安装过程中可用的许多选项不在本文档的讨论范围之内。要了解网络相关的更多信息,获取相关的理论知识和具体示例,请阅读 https://docs.fedoraproject.org/ 上的 Fedora 网络配置指南 页面。

网络与主机名
image

["网络与主机名页面。位于左栏", one physical interface and one custom VLAN interface is shown; the right side shows details of the currently selected interface. System hostname is configured at the bottom.]

安装程序会自动检测本地可用的接口,你不能手动添加更多接口或删除接口。屏幕左侧列出了所有检测到的接口,单击列表中的接口以显示其当前配置(例如 IP 和 DNS 地址),详细信息显示在屏幕的右侧。

Below the list of interfaces are two buttons. Use the + button to add a virtual network interface (Team, Bond or VLAN) as described in Adding a Virtual Network Interface. To remove a previously created virtual interface, select it in the list and click the - button.

To change settings such as IP addresses, DNS servers, or routing configuration for an existing interface (both virtual and physical), select the interface in the left pane and click Configure in the bottom right corner of the screen. Available settings are described in Editing Network Interface Configuration.

Use the ON/OFF switch in the top right corner to enable or disable the currently selected interface.

Below the list of connections, enter a host name for this computer in the Hostname input field. The host name can be either a fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) in the format hostname.domainname, or a short host name with no domain name. Many networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service that automatically supplies connected systems with a domain name; to allow the DHCP service to assign the domain name to this machine, only specify the short host name.

Adding a Virtual Network Interface

To add a virtual network interface, click the + button at the bottom of the interface list. A new window will open, prompting you to select one of the three available types of virtual interfaces:

  • Bond - NIC (Network Interface Controller) Bonding, a method to bind multiple physical network interfaces together into a single bonded channel.

  • Team - NIC Teaming, a new implementation to aggregate links, designed to provide a small kernel driver to implement the fast handling of packet flows, and various applications to do everything else in user space.

  • Vlan (Virtual LAN) - A method to create multiple distinct broadcast domains which are mutually isolated.

Select the interface type you want to add, and click Add. Another dialog window will open, allowing you to edit any available settings for your chosen interface type. For information about available settings, see the respective sections of the Fedora Networking Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/. Basic documentation is also available in Editing Network Interface Configuration.

To access the settings dialog again after you closed it, select the same interface in the list of configured interfaces and click Configure in the bottom right corner of the screen. To remove a virtual interface, select it in the list and click the - button below.

Editing Network Interface Configuration

This section only details the most important settings for a typical wired connection used during installation. Many of the available options do not have to be changed in most installation scenarios and are not carried over to the installed system. Configuration of other types of networks is broadly similar, although the specific configuration parameters may be different. To learn more about network configuration after installation, see the Fedora Networking Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/.

To configure a network connection manually, select that connection in the list on the left side of the screen, and click the Configure button. A dialog will appear that allows you to configure the selected connection. The configuration options presented depends on the connection type - the available options will be slightly different depending on whether it is a physical interface (wired or wireless network interface controller) or a virtual interface (Bond, Team or Vlan) which you previously configured in Adding a Virtual Network Interface.. A full description of all configuration settings for all connection types is beyond the scope of this document; see the Networking Guide for details.

The most common and useful options in the configuration dialog are:

Enable or disable the connection by default

In the General tab of the configuration dialog, you can select or unselect the Automatically connect to this network when it is available check box to allow or disallow this connection to connect by default. When enabled on a wired connection, this means the system will typically connect during startup (unless you unplug the network cable); on a wireless connection, it means that the interface will attempt to connect to any known wireless networks in range.

Additionally, you can allow or disallow all users on the system from connecting to this network using the All users may connect to this network option. If you disable this option, only root will be able to connect to this network.

It is not possible to only allow a specific user other than root to use this interface, because no other users are created at this point during the installation. If you need a connection for a different user, you must configure it after the installation.

Set up static IPv4 or IPv6 settings

By default, both IPv4 and IPv6 are set to automatic configuration depending on current network settings. This means that addresses such as the local IP address, DNS address, and other settings will be detected automatically each time the interface connects to a network. In many cases, this is sufficient, but you can also provide static configuration in the IPv4 Settings and IPv6 Settings, respectively.

To set static network configuration, navigate to one of the settings tabs and select a method other than Automatic (for example, Manual) from the Method drop-down menu. This will enable the Addresses field below.

In the IPv6 Settings tab, you can also set the method to Ignore to disable IPv6 on this interface.

Then, click Add on the right side and add a set of settings: Address, Netmask (for IPv4), Prefix (for IPv6), and Gateway.

The DNS servers field accepts one or more IP addresses of DNS servers - for example, 10.0.0.1,10.0.0.8.

The final option in both tabs is Require IPvX addressing for this connection to complete. Select this option in the IPv4 tab to only allow this connection if IPv4 was successful; the same principle applies to this setting in the IPv6 tab. If this option remains disabled for both IPv4 and IPv6, the interface will be able to connect if configuration succeeds on either IP protocol.

Configure routes

In the IPv4 Settings and IPv4 Settings tabs, click the Routes button in the bottom right corner to configure routing settings for a specific IP protocol on an interface. A new dialog will open, allowing you to Add a specific route.

If you confire at least one static route, you can disallow all routes not specifically configured here by enabling the Ignore automatically obtained routes.

Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to prevent this connection from becoming the default route. This option can be selected even if you did not configure any static routes. Enabling this option means that this route will only be used when necessary to access certain resources, such as intranet pages which require a local or VPN connection. Another (default) route will be used for publicly available resources if possible. Note that unlike the additional routes configured in this dialog, this setting will be transferred to the installed system. Also note that this option is only useful when more than one interface is configured.

When you finish configuring the interface’s routing settings, click OK to return to the configuration dialog.

Once you finish configuring the interface, click Save in the configuration window’s bottom right corner to save your settings and return to Network & Hostname.

Root 帐户密码

Root 帐户密码页面允许你对`root` 账户的密码进行设置。这个密码将被用于登录到超级管理员账户,以处理各类需要高权限才能完成的任务(如安装和更新软件包、修改全局系统设置如网络设定、储存设定、用户管理和文件权限设置等)。

在安装的时候 root 帐户也会被创建,但是你应该总是在 创建帐户 页面创建一个普通用户帐户并使用这个帐户登录到系统。只有在需要到管理员权限的时候才尝试切换到管理员帐户。

The root account has complete control over the system. If an unauthorized person gains access to this account, they can access or delete all users’ personal files or otherwise exploit the machine for their own nefarious purposes. See the Fedora Security Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/, for detailed documentation about account security and guidelines for choosing a strong password.

Root 用户密码页面。填写表单以设置你的 root 用户密码。
Figure 23. Root 帐户密码

当你选定一个强密码后,将它填写到表单中。为了安全起见你输入的字符都会被显示为实心原点。接下来再输入一次密码以确认你刚才输入的密码准确无误。请注意两次输入的密码应该是相同的。

在你输入密码的时候,安装程序会评估密码的强度。如果安装程序认为你的密码非常弱,屏幕顶部会弹出相关的信息,告知你输入的密码在哪一方面有所欠缺,例如:

你提供的密码非常弱:密码的长度小于 5 个字符。

如果有这样的信息出现,我们建议你选择一个不同的且安全性更佳的密码。

当你完成了 root 帐户密码设置后,点击左上角的确定按钮就可以回到 安装进度页 。如果你选择了一个弱密码,你需要连续点两次确认按钮。

创建用户

在安装的过程中你可以使用创建用户页面创建和配置一个(除了 root 之外的)用户。如果你需要多个账户,你可以在安装完成重启后通过命令行 useradd 或者 GNOME 设置等方式继续创建。

尽管不是必须的,我们依然强烈建议你在安装时创建一个普通用户。否则你就得必须直接使用 root 进行登录,这是我们非常不建议的。

用户创建页面。填写表单创建和配置用户。
Figure 24. 创建用户

要配置一个用户帐户,你需要添加用户名称(例如 John Smith)和帐号(例如 jsmith)。帐号将被用于在控制台登录你的系统。如果你使用图形界面,你的登录管理器将会显示你的用户名称。

请务必勾选启用帐户密码,并在密码栏填写一个密码。为了安全起见无论你敲的字符是什么我们都只会显示实心圆点。接下来你还需要再输入一次密码以确认你刚才输入的密码准确无误。注意两次输入的密码要一致才行。

在你输入密码的时候,安装程序会评估密码的强度。如果安装程序认为你的密码非常弱,屏幕顶部会弹出相关的信息,告知你输入的密码在哪一方面有所欠缺,例如:

你提供的密码非常弱:密码的长度小于 5 个字符。

如果有这样的信息出现,我们建议你选择一个不同的且安全性更佳的密码。

你可以选择将用户添加到管理员组(也就是 wheel 组),这样子用户就可以通过 sudo 命令而从只需要自己的密码就能执行特权任务。这可以使得许多工作变得简单,但也有可能带来安全隐患。

如果你要将一名用户添加到管理员组,请确认他的密码安全性足够高。千万不要给一个无密码的普通用户赋予管理身份。

如需了解有关密码安全性相关的更多信息,请阅读 https://docs.fedoraproject.org/ 上的 Fedora Security Guide 页面。

如果你希望对用户做进一步的设置,你可以点击位于表单下方的高级选项按钮。此时一个对话框会弹出,我们会在下面介绍这个对话框。

用户高级选项

用户高级选项对话框允许你对新用户做以下的设定。

新用户高级设定。
Figure 25. 用户高级选项
  • 用户的家目录(默认是 /home/username` )。

  • The user’s ID (UID). The default value is 1000. UIDs 0-999 are reserved by the system so they cannot be assigned to an user.

  • The the group ID (GID) of the user’s default group. The default group name will be the same as the user name, and its default GID is 1000. GIDs 0-999 are reserved by the system so they cannot be assigned to an user’s group.

  • 用户的其它组信息。所有的用户帐号都会有一个默认组信息(默认组有专门的选项进行设置),而在其它组信息设置这里你可以填写额外组别的信息,组别名称之间用逗号间隔。还没创建的组会被自动创建,你可以在圆括号内指定 GID 信息。如果你不为组别指定 GID,我们将为你的小组自动分配 GID。

安装进展

安装进展页面会在你完成 安装摘要 页面上的所有设置并点击开始安装按钮后出现。此时,实际的安装流程就会开始,所有改动将会应用到你选定的磁盘上。此时就不能再回到安装摘要页面并作出其它的调整了,然而在安装结束重启系统后,你依然可以在安装好的系统上对设置作出调整。

安装进展页面。
Figure 26. 安装进展

页面的底部会有进度条,告知你目前安装的进展情况以及安装程序目前在做些什么事情。当系统安装完成且 root 密码设置完毕后,你就可以点击结束安装按钮重启并进入你新安装的 Fedora 系统。

在你结束安装和重启之前,移除你安装时使用的安装介质或者调整启动设置以确保新安装的系统先于安装介质启动。否则重启后又会回到安装程序而不是新安装的系统了。