Setting up SSH access and starting containers at boot

Make sure that you have completed the steps described in the initial setup page before starting this tutorial.

In this tutorial, we will setup SSH access and start a container at boot. Fedora CoreOS is focused on running applications/services in containers thus we recommend trying to run containers and avoid modifying the host directly. Running containers and keeping a pristine host layer makes automatic updates more reliable and allows for separation of concerns with the Fedora CoreOS team responsible for the OS and end-user operators/sysadmins responsible for the applications.

As usual we will setup console autologin, a hostname, systemd pager configuration, and raise kernel logging level, but we will also:

  • Add an SSH Key for the core user.

  • Add a systemd service (failure.service) that fails on boot.

  • Add a systemd service that will use a container to bring up a hosted service.

Writing the Butane config and converting to Ignition

Similarly to what we did in the second provisioning scenario, we will write the following Butane config in a file called containers.bu:

variant: fcos
version: 1.4.0
    - name: core
        - ssh-rsa AAAA...
    - name: serial-getty@ttyS0.service
      - name: autologin-core.conf
        contents: |
          # Override Execstart in main unit
          # Add new Execstart with `-` prefix to ignore failure
          ExecStart=-/usr/sbin/agetty --autologin core --noclear %I $TERM
    - name: failure.service
      enabled: true
      contents: |

    - name: etcd-member.service
      enabled: true
      contents: |
        Description=Run a single node etcd

        ExecStartPre=mkdir -p /var/lib/etcd
        ExecStartPre=-/bin/podman kill etcd
        ExecStartPre=-/bin/podman rm etcd
        ExecStartPre=-/bin/podman pull
        ExecStart=/bin/podman run --name etcd --net=host \
                    --volume /var/lib/etcd:/etcd-data:z  \
           /usr/local/bin/etcd              \
                            --data-dir /etcd-data --name node1                  \
                            --initial-advertise-peer-urls \
                            --listen-peer-urls            \
                            --advertise-client-urls       \
                            --listen-client-urls          \
                            --initial-cluster node1=
        ExecStop=/bin/podman stop etcd

    - path: /etc/hostname
      mode: 0644
        inline: |
    - path: /etc/profile.d/
      mode: 0644
        inline: |
          # Tell systemd to not use a pager when printing information
          export SYSTEMD_PAGER=cat
    - path: /etc/sysctl.d/20-silence-audit.conf
      mode: 0644
        inline: |
          # Raise console message logging level from DEBUG (7) to WARNING (4)
          # to hide audit messages from the interactive console
Optionally you can replace the SSH pubkey in the yaml file with your own public key so you can log in to the booted instance. If you choose not to do this you’ll still be auto logged in to the serial console.

Run Butane to convert that to an Ignition config:

butane --pretty --strict containers.bu --output containers.ign

Now let’s provision it:

# Setup the correct SELinux label to allow access to the config
chcon --verbose --type svirt_home_t containers.ign

# Start a Fedora CoreOS virtual machine
virt-install --name=fcos --vcpus=2 --ram=2048 --os-variant=fedora-coreos-stable \
    --import --network=bridge=virbr0 --graphics=none \
    --qemu-commandline="-fw_cfg name=opt/com.coreos/config,file=${PWD}/containers.ign" \

On the serial console you will see:

[  OK  ] Reached target Login Prompts.

Fedora CoreOS 32.20200715.3.0
Kernel 5.7.8-200.fc32.x86_64 on an x86_64 (ttyS0)

SSH host key: SHA256:rLJvpsONtyYXW4QCTdHD3Vvn56ERq1AbakWxwRImH2g (ECDSA)
SSH host key: SHA256:/UUqh9nMlFf+2wFSjTMtyLemF6qVEuMHbAh1Td8nJeE (ED25519)
SSH host key: SHA256:ZoKsIc9NZVRLe8ao9uPvc1vsbHa6StdSVMvF6rGWhAI (RSA)
ens2: fe80::5054:ff:fec1:a01f
Ignition: user provided config was applied
Ignition: wrote ssh authorized keys file for user: core
tutorial login: core (automatic login)

Failed Units: 1
[core@tutorial ~]$

If you would like to connect via SSH, disconnect from the serial console by pressing CTRL + ] and then use the reported IP address for ens2 from the serial console to log in using the core user via SSH:

ssh core@
The authenticity of host ' (' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:rLJvpsONtyYXW4QCTdHD3Vvn56ERq1AbakWxwRImH2g.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no/[fingerprint])? yes
Warning: Permanently added '' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
Fedora CoreOS 32.20200715.3.0

Last login: Fri Aug  7 10:10:45 2020
Failed Units: 1
[core@tutorial ~]$

The Failed Units message is coming from the console login helper messages helpers. This particular helper shows us when systemd has services that are in a failed state. In this case we made failure.service with ExecStart=/usr/bin/false, so we intentionally created a service that will always fail in order to illustrate the helper messages.

Now that we’re up and we don’t have any real failures we can check out the service that we care about (etcd-member.service):

[core@tutorial ~]$ systemctl status --full etcd-member.service
● etcd-member.service - Run a single node etcd
     Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/etcd-member.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
     Active: active (running) since Fri 2020-08-07 10:10:45 UTC; 4min 30s ago
    Process: 1926 ExecStartPre=/usr/bin/mkdir -p /var/lib/etcd (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
    Process: 1928 ExecStartPre=/bin/podman kill etcd (code=exited, status=125)
    Process: 2034 ExecStartPre=/bin/podman rm etcd (code=exited, status=1/FAILURE)
    Process: 2063 ExecStartPre=/bin/podman pull (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
   Main PID: 2155 (podman)
      Tasks: 11 (limit: 2288)
     Memory: 134.2M
     CGroup: /system.slice/etcd-member.service
             ├─2155 /bin/podman run ...
             └─2203 /usr/bin/conmon ...

Aug 07 10:10:47 tutorial podman[2155]: 2020-08-07 10:10:47.035534 I | raft: b71f75320dc06a6c became candidate at term 2
Aug 07 10:10:47 tutorial podman[2155]: 2020-08-07 10:10:47.035966 I | raft: b71f75320dc06a6c received MsgVoteResp from b71f75320dc06a6c at term 2
Aug 07 10:10:47 tutorial podman[2155]: 2020-08-07 10:10:47.036297 I | raft: b71f75320dc06a6c became leader at term 2
Aug 07 10:10:47 tutorial podman[2155]: 2020-08-07 10:10:47.036774 I | raft: raft.node: b71f75320dc06a6c elected leader b71f75320dc06a6c at term 2
Aug 07 10:10:47 tutorial podman[2155]: 2020-08-07 10:10:47.037468 I | etcdserver: setting up the initial cluster version to 3.3
Aug 07 10:10:47 tutorial podman[2155]: 2020-08-07 10:10:47.050863 N | etcdserver/membership: set the initial cluster version to 3.3
Aug 07 10:10:47 tutorial podman[2155]: 2020-08-07 10:10:47.050955 I | etcdserver/api: enabled capabilities for version 3.3
Aug 07 10:10:47 tutorial podman[2155]: 2020-08-07 10:10:47.050998 I | etcdserver: published {Name:node1 ClientURLs:[]} to cluster 1c45a069f3a1d796
Aug 07 10:10:47 tutorial podman[2155]: 2020-08-07 10:10:47.051115 I | embed: ready to serve client requests
Aug 07 10:10:47 tutorial podman[2155]: 2020-08-07 10:10:47.052367 N | embed: serving insecure client requests on, this is strongly discouraged!

We can also inspect the state of the container that was run by the systemd service:

[core@tutorial ~]$ sudo podman ps -a
CONTAINER ID  IMAGE                       COMMAND               CREATED        STATUS            PORTS  NAMES
618991ee6db1  /usr/local/bin/et...  5 minutes ago  Up 5 minutes ago         etcd

And we can set a key/value pair in etcd. For now let’s set the key fedora to the value fun:

[core@tutorial ~]$ curl -L -X PUT -d value="fun"
[core@tutorial ~]$ curl -L 2>/dev/null | jq .
  "action": "get",
  "node": {
    "dir": true,
    "nodes": [
        "key": "/fedora",
        "value": "fun",
        "modifiedIndex": 4,
        "createdIndex": 4

Looks like everything is working!


Now let’s take down the instance for the next test. Disconnect from the serial console by pressing CTRL + ] or from SSH and then destroy the machine:

virsh destroy fcos
virsh undefine --remove-all-storage fcos

You may now proceed with the next tutorial.