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부팅 옵션

The Anaconda installer includes a range of boot options for administrators, which modify the default behavior of the installation program by enabling or disabling certain functions. To use one or more boot options, you either have to boot from installation media and append these options at the boot menu (see The Boot Menu), or you must add them into your PXE server configuration file if you are booting from a network (see Setting Up an Installation Server).

당신은 동시에 다중 선택을 사용 할 수 있습니다; 그 경우에, 단일 공백에 의해 그 들을 분리합니다.

이 장에서 설명되어지는 두 가지 기본 유형의 선택이 있습니다:

  • Options presented as ending with an "equals" sign (=) require a value to be specified - they cannot be used on their own. For example, the inst.vncpassword= option must also contain a value (in this case, a password). The correct form is therefore inst.vncpassword=password. On its own, without a password specified, the option is invalid.

  • Options presented without the "=" sign do not accept any values or parameters. For example, the option forces Anaconda to verify the installation media before starting the installation; if this option is present, the check will be performed, and if it is not present, the check will be skipped.

In addition to the options described in this chapter, the boot prompt also accepts dracut kernel options. A list of these options is available as the dracut.cmdline(7) man page.

Boot options specific to the installation program always start with inst. in this guide. Currently, this prefix is optional - for example, resolution=1024x768 will work exactly the same as inst.resolution=1024x768. However, it is expected that the inst. prefix will be mandatory in future releases.

부팅 메뉴에서 설치 시스템 구성

The exact way to specify custom boot options is differs based on your system’s architecture, firmware and the method you use to boot the installation. If you are booting from local media, you can specify options in the boot menu, before you begin the installation; if you are booting from a network using a PXE server, you must add boot options into the boot loader configuration file before you boot the installation system. For specific instructions, see The Boot Menu if you are booting from local media, and Setting Up an Installation Server if you are booting from a server.

사용 가능한 부팅 선택

다음 옵션은 {PRODUCT)에서 사용 할 수 있습니다:

설치 원천 지정


설치 원천을 지정합니다 - 즉, 설치 프로그램이 필요한 이미지와 꾸러미를 찾을 수 있는 위치입니다. 예를 들면:


원천은 다음 중 하나 이어야 합니다:

  • 설치 가능한 트리는, 설치 프로그램의 이미지, 꾸러미 및 레포데이타와 유효한`.treeinfo` 파일을 포함하는 디렉토리 구조입니다

  • DVD (시스템의 DVD 드라이브에 있는 물리적인 디스크)

  • 설치 시스템에서 접근 할 수 있는 하드 드라이브 또는 네트워크 위치에 배치되어 있는 전체 Fedora 설치 DVD의 ISO 이미지

    이 선택은 다른 형식을 사용하여 다른 설치 방법의 구성을 허용합니다. 구문은 아래 표에서 설명됩니다.

    Table 1. 설치 원천
    설치 원천 옵션 형식

    Any CD/DVD drive


    Specific CD/DVD drive


    Hard Drive


    HTTP Server


    HTTPS Server


    FTP Server


    NFS Server

    inst.repo=nfs:[options:]server:/path [1]

    디스크 장치 이름은 다음 형식을 사용하여 지정 할 수 있습니다:

  • 커널 장치 이름, 예로 /dev/sda1 또는 sdb2

  • 파일 시스템 이름표, 예로 LABEL=Flash 또는 LABEL=RHEL7

  • 파일 시스템 UUID, 예로 UUID=8176c7bf-04ff-403a-a832-9557f94e61db

    Non-alphanumeric characters must be represented as \xNN, where NN is the hexadecimal representation of the character. For example, \x20 is a white space ("").


Specifies the location of the installation program runtime image to be loaded. The syntax is the same as in Installation Sources. This option expects a path to a directory containing a valid .treeinfo file; the location of the runtime image will be read from this file if found. If a .treeinfo file is not available, Anaconda will try to load the image from LiveOS/squashfs.img.

By default, this boot option is used on the installation media and set to a specific label (for example, inst.stage2=hd:LABEL=F21\x20Server.x86_64). If you modify the default label of the file system containing the runtime image, you must also edit this option to match the new label.


이와 같은 부팅 옵션과 함께, 단계 2의 이미지는 성공적으로 가져올 때까지, 이들이 지정한 순서에 맞게 연속적으로 inst.stage2= 옵션을 사용하여 지정된 위치에서 HTTP, HTTPS와 FTP 위치에서 가져옵니다. 다른 모든 위치는 무시됩니다.


If you need to perform a driver update during the installation, use the inst.dd= option. It can be used multiple times. The location of a driver RPM package can be specified using any of the formats described in Installation Sources. With the exception of the inst.dd=cdrom option, the device name must always be specified. For example:


Using this option without any parameters (only as inst.dd) will prompt the installation program to ask you for a driver update disk with an interactive menu.

You should never attempt to perform a driver update during the installation unless a missing our faulty driver is preventing you from completing the installation. Updating drivers which are not essential during the installation should always be performed after the system is installed.


설치 프로그램이 설치 원천을 자동으로 구성하는 못하도록 막습니다.

Normally, when you first enter the Installation Summary screen, the installer will attempt to configure an installation source based on the type of media you used to boot. The full Fedora Server DVD will configure the source as local media, the netinst ISO image will configure the closest network mirror, etc. This process takes time; therefore, if you plan to use a different source than the default, this option will allow you to enter the Installation Source screen immediately without having to wait for the initial configuration to finish.

Using this option will leave the installation source configuration in an error state - you must manually specify a source in the Installation Source screen to proceed with the installation. Alternatively, you can use the inst.repo= option described above to configure a specific source directly in the boot menu.

킥스타트 부팅 선택


Gives the location of a Kickstart file to be used to automate the installation. Locations can be specified using any of the formats valid for inst.repo=. See Installation Sources for valid formats.

If you only specify a device and not a path, the installation program will look for the Kickstart file in /ks.cfg on the specified device. If you use this option without specifying a device, the installation program will use the following:


In the above example, next-server is the DHCP next-server option or the IP address of the DHCP server itself, and filename is the DHCP filename option, or /kickstart/. If the given file name ends with the / character, ip-kickstart is appended. For example:

Table 2. 기본 킥스타트 파일 위치
DHCP 서버 주소 클라이언트 주소 킥스타트 파일 위치


이와 같은 부팅 옵션과 함께, 킥스타트 파일은 파일이 성공적으로 가져올 때까지, 이들이 지정한 순서에 맞게 연속적으로 inst.ks= 옵션을 사용하여 지정된 위치에서 HTTP, HTTPS와 FTP 위치에서 가져옵니다. 다른 모든 위치는 무시됩니다.


모든 네트워크 연결장치의 MAC 주소와 함께 나가는 'HTTP' 요청에 헤더를 추가합니다. 예를 들면:

X-RHN-Provisioning-MAC-0: eth0 01:23:45:67:89:ab

이는 [option]#inst.ks=http#를 사용하여 시스템을 프로비저닝 할 때에 유용 할 수 있습니다.


Adds a header to outgoing HTTP requests. This header will contain the system’s serial number, read from /sys/class/dmi/id/product_serial. The header has the following syntax:

X-System-Serial-Number: R8VA23D

콘솔, 환경 및 표시 선택


This kernel option specifies a device to be used as the primary console. For example, to use a console on the first serial port, use console=ttyS0. This option should be used along with the inst.text option.

You can use this option multiple times. In that case, the boot message will be displayed on all specified consoles, but only the last one will be used by the installation program afterwards. For example, if you specify console=ttyS0 console=ttyS1, the installation program will only use ttyS1.


Disables access to the root shell during the installation. This is useful with automated (Kickstart) installations - if you use this option, a user can watch the installation progress, but they cannot interfere with it by accessing the root shell by pressing Ctrl+Alt+F2.


Sets the language to be used during the installation. Language codes are the same as the ones used in the lang Kickstart command as described in lang (optional) - Configure Language During Installation. On systems where the system-config-language package is installed, a list of valid values can also be find in /usr/share/system-config-language/locale-list.

If you perform the installation interactively, the language you specified using this option will be selected by default, but you will still be able to change it at the beginning of the graphical installation.


Allows you to run the installation in single language mode - in other words, this option disables language selection for the installer and the installed system. If you also use the inst.lang= option at the same time, the language you specify will be used. If you do not set the language, Anaconda and the installed system will default to en-US.UTF-8.


Configures geolocation usage in the installation program. Geolocation is used to pre-set the language and time zone, and uses the following syntax: inst.geoloc=value

값 매개변수는 다음 중 하나 일 수 있습니다:

Table 3. inst.geoloc 선택에 유효한 값

Disable geolocation


Use the Fedora GeoIP API


Use the GeoIP API


만약 이 선택이 지정되지 않았으면, [application]*Anaconda*는 `provider_fedora_geoip`를 사용합니다.


Specifies the keyboard layout to be used by the installation program. Layout codes are the same as the ones used in the keyboard Kickstart command as described in keyboard (optional) - Configure Keyboard Layouts.


Forces the installation program to run in text mode instead of graphical mode. The text user interface is limited, for example, it does not allow you to modify the partition layout or set up LVM. When installing a system on a machine with a limited graphical capabilities, it is recommended to use VNC as described in Enabling Remote Access Using VNC.


설치 프로그램이 명령 줄 방식에서 동작 되도록 강제합니다. 이 방식은 상호 작용을 허용하지 않으며, 모든 선택은 킥스타트 파일이나 명령 줄에서 지정해야만 합니다.


설치 프로그램이 그래픽 방법으로 동작하도록 합니다. 이 방법이 기본 값입니다.


Specifies the screen resolution in graphical mode. The format is NxM, where N is the screen width and M is the screen height (in pixels). The lowest supported resolution is 800x600.


설치 할 때와 설치된 시스템 두 경우 모두 사용되는 X 드라이버의 이름을 지정합니다.


Tells the installation program to use the frame buffer X driver instead of a hardware-specific driver. This option is equivalent to inst.xdriver=fbdev.


Specifies a timeout period (in seconds) the installer will wait before starting the X server.


Blacklists (completely disables) one or more drivers. Drivers (mods) disabled using this option will be prevented from loading when the installation starts, and after the installation finishes, the installed system will keep these settings. The blacklisted drivers can then be found in the /etc/modprobe.d/ directory.

여러 드라이버를 비활성화하려면 쉼표로 구분 된 목록을 사용하세요. 예를 들면 :


Starts the sshd service during the installation, which allows you to connect to the system during the installation using SSH and monitor its progress. For more information on SSH, see the ssh(1) man page and the corresponding chapter in the Fedora System Administrator’s Guide, available at

During the installation, the root account has no password by default. You can set a root password to be used during the installation with the sshpw Kickstart command as described in sshpw (optional) - Restrict ssh Access During Installation.


Starting with Fedora 27, the graphical installer window has no decorations. Use this option to enable window decorations again.

네트워크 부팅 선택

Initial network initialization is handled by dracut. This section only lists some of the more commonly used options; for a complete list, see the dracut.cmdline(7) man page. Additional information on networking is also available in the Fedora Networking Guide, available at


Configures one or more network interfaces. To configure multiple interfaces, use the ip option multiple times - once for each interface. If multiple interfaces are configured, you must specify a primary boot interface using the bootdev option described below.

다음 표에는 이 선택에 유효한 값을 목록화 합니다:

Table 4. 네트워크 연결장치 구성 형식
구성 방식 옵션 형식

Automatic configuration of any interface


Automatic configuration of a specific interface


Static configuration


Automatic configuration of a specific interface with an override [2]


method 매개변수는 다음 중 하나 일 수 있습니다:

Table 5. 자동 연결장치 구성 방법
자동 구성 방식





IPv6 automatic configuration


iBFT (iSCSI Boot Firmware Table)


If you use a boot option which requires network access, such as inst.ks=http://host:/path, without specifying the ip option, the installation program will use ip=dhcp.

In the above tables, the ip parameter specifies the client’s IP address. IPv6 addresses can be specified by putting them in square brackets, for example, [2001:DB8::1].

게이트웨이 매개변수는 지정 게이트웨이입니다. IPV6 주소들은 여기에서 잘 허용됩니다.

넷매스크 매개변수는 사용 되는 넷매스크입니다. 이는 전체 넷매스크 (예로 또는 접두사(예로 64) 중 하나 일 수 있습니다.

호스트이름 매개변수는 클라이언트 시스템의 호스트 이름 입니다. 이 매개변수는 선택적입니다.


네임서버의 주소를 지정합니다. 이 선택은 여러 번 사용 될 수 있습니다.


부트 연결장치를 상세화합니다. 이 선택은 만약 둘 이상의 ip 선택을 갖고 있는 경우에 필수적입니다.


Assigns a given interface name to a network device with a given MAC address. Can be used multiple times. The syntax is ifname=interface:MAC. For example:


Specifies the DHCP vendor class identifier. The dhcpd service will see this value as vendor-class-identifier. The default value is anaconda-$(uname -srm).


Sets up a Virtual LAN (VLAN) device on a specified interface with a given name. The syntax is vlan=name:interface. For example:


위의 것은 em1 연결장치에서 `vlan5`라고 명명된 VLAN 장치를 설정 할 것입니다. 이름은 다음 형식을 가져 올 수 있습니다:

Table 6. VLAN 장치이름 지정 규칙
이름 체계 예제










Set up a bonding device with the following syntax: bond=name[:slaves][:options]. Replace name with the bonding device name, slaves with a comma-separated list of physical (ethernet) interfaces, and options with a comma-separated list of bonding options. For example:


사용 가능한 선택 목록을 위하여, modinfo bonding 명령을 실행하세요.

매개변수 없이 이 선택을 사용하면 [option]#bond=bond0:eth0,eth1:mode=balance-rr#로 간주 할 것입니다.


Set up a team device with the following syntax: team=master:slaves. Replace master with the name of the master team device and slaves with a comma-separated list of physical (ethernet) devices to be used as slaves in the team device. For example:


고급 설치 선택


multilib 꾸러미를 (그 것은, 64-비트 x86 시스템에서 32-비트 꾸러미를 설치하는 것을 허용하는 것으로) 위한 시스템을 구성하고 그러한 것처럼 이 부분에서 정의된 꾸러미를 설치합니다.

Normally, on an AMD64 or Intel 64 system, only packages for this architecture (marked as x86_64) and packages for all architectures (marked as noarch would be installed. When you use this option, packages for 32-bit AMD or Intel systems (marked as i686) will be automatically installed as well if available.

This only applies to packages directly specified in the %packages section. If a package is only installed as a dependency, only the exact specified dependency will be installed. For example, if you are installing package foo which depends on package bar, the former will be installed in multiple variants, while the latter will only be installed in variants specifically required.


Force the installation program to install partition information into a GUID Partition Table (GPT) instead of a Master Boot Record (MBR). This option is meaningless on UEFI-based systems, unless they are in BIOS compatibility mode.

Normally, BIOS-based systems and UEFI-based systems in BIOS compatibility mode will attempt to use the MBR schema for storing partitioning information, unless the disk is larger than 2 TB. Using this option will change this behavior, allowing a GPT to be written even to disks smaller than 2 TB.

See Recommended Partitioning Scheme for more information about GPT and MBR, and GUID Partition Table (GPT) for more general information about GPT, MBR and disk partitioning in general.


This option controls which Kickstart files and installation logs are saved to the installed system. It can be especially useful to disable saving such data when performing OEM operating system installations, or when generating images using sensitive resources (such as internal repository URLs), as these resources might otherwise be mentioned in kickstart files and/or logs on the image. Possible values for this option are:

input_ks - 입력 킥스타트 파일(만약 있다면)의 저장을 비활성화.

output_ks - 아나콘다에 의해 발생된 출력 킥스타트파일의 저장을 비활성화.

all_ks - 입력과 출력 킥스타트 파일 모두의 저장을 비활성화.

logs - 모든 설치 기록의 저장을 비활성화.

all - 모든 킥스타트 파일과 설치 기록의 저장을 비활성화.

여러 값은 쉽표로 구분된 목록처럼 결합 될 수 있습니다, 예를 들면: input_ks,logs


This option controls the usage of zRAM swap during the installation. It creates a compressed block device inside the system RAM and uses it for swap space instead of the hard drive. This allows the installer to essentially increase the amount of memory available, which makes the installation faster on systems with low memory.

By default, swap on zRAM is enabled on systems with 2 GB or less RAM, and disabled on systems with more than 2 GB of memory. You can use this option to change this behavior - on a system with more than 2 GB RAM, use inst.zram=1 to enable it, and on systems with 2 GB or less memory, use inst.zram=0 to disable this feature.


Perform a check at the beginning of the installation to determine if there is enough available RAM. If there is not enough memory detected, the installation will stop with an error message. This option is enabled by default; use inst.memcheck=0 to disable it.


Use the older Yum backend for package installation and dependency resolution instead of DNF. See the Fedora System Administrator’s Guide, available at, for details about DNF.


Turns the Kdump installer add-on on or off (the add-on is off by default). If you use inst.kdump_addon=on, a new screen, which allows you to configure the Kdump kernel crash dumping mechanism, will appear in the main menu of the graphical or text interface (see Kdump). Enabling this add-on is also necessary to use the %addon com_redhat_kdump (optional) - Configure kdump Kickstart command.

VNC를 사용하여 원격 접속을 활성화하기

The following options are necessary to configure Anaconda for remote graphical installation. See Installing Using VNC for more details.


Specifies that the installation program’s graphical interface should be run in a VNC session. If you specify this option, you will need to connect to the system using a VNC client application to be able to interact with the installation program. VNC sharing is enabled, so multiple clients can connect to the system at the same time.

`VNC`를 사용하여 설치된 시스템은 기본적으로 텍스트 방식으로 시작 할 것입니다.


VNC server used by the installation program. Any VNC client attempting to connect to the system will have to provide the correct password to gain access. For example, inst.vncpassword=testpwd will set the password to testpwd. The password must be between 6 and 8 characters long.

If you specify an invalid password (one that is too short or too long), you will be prompted to specify a new one by a message from the installation program:

VNC 비밀번호는 6에서 8자 문자 길이여야 합니다.
새로운 비밀번호를 입력하거나, 비밀번호가 필요 없으면 비워 두세요.


Connect to a listening VNC client at a specified host and port once the installation starts. The correct syntax is inst.vncconnect=host:port. The port parameter is optional - if you do not specify one, the installation program will use 5900.

디버깅과 문제 해결


Specifies the location of the updates.img file to be applied to the installation program runtime. The syntax is the same as in the inst.repo option - see Installation Sources for details. In all formats, if you do not specify a file name but only a directory, the installation program will look for a file named updates.img.


Specifies the minimum level for messages to be logged on a terminal. This only concerns real-time logging in a terminal; log files will always contain messages of all levels.

Possible values for this option from the lowest to highest level are: debug, info, warning, error and critical. The default value is info, which means that by default, the logging terminal will display messages ranging from info to critical, but not debug.


Once the installation starts, this option sends log messages to the syslog process on the specified host. The remote syslog process must be configured to accept incoming connections.


Specifies a virtio port (a character device at /dev/virtio-ports/name) to be used for forwarding logs. The default value is org.fedoraproject.anaconda.log.0; if this port is present, it will be used.

누락된 부트 선택

Options in this list are deprecated. They will still work, but there are other options which offer the same functionality and should be preferred. Using deprecated options is not recommended and they are expected to be removed in future releases.

Note that as described in the introduction to this chapter, options specific to the installation program now use the inst. prefix. For example, the vnc= option is considered deprecated and replaced by the inst.vnc= option. However, these changes are not listed here.


Used to specify that the machine being installed onto does not have any display hardware, and to prevent the installer from trying to detect a display.


설치 방법이 구성되었습니다. inst.repo= 선택 대신에 사용합니다.


In NFS installations, specified that the target is an ISO image located on an NFS server instead of an installable tree. The difference is now detected automatically, which means this option is the same as inst.repo=nfs:server:/path.


도메인 네임 서버(DNS)가 구성되었습니다. 대신에 nameserver= option 을 사용하세요.

netmask=, gateway=, hostname=, ip=, ipv6=

이들 선택은 ip= option 하에서 통합되었습니다.


Select network device to be used at early stage of installation. Different values have been replaced with different options; see the table below.

Table 7. 자동 연결장치 구성 방법
Value Current behavior

Not present

All devices are attempted to be activated using dhcp, unless desired device and configuration is specified by ip= option and/or the BOOTIF option.


Similar to the above, with the difference that network will always be activated in the initramfs, whether it is needed or not. The supported rd.neednet option (provided by dracut) should be used instead.


Ignored (the BOOTID= option is used by default when specified)


Replaced with the ip=ibft option


Replaced with BOOTIF=MAC


Replaced by specifying the device name using the ip= option.

When performing a Kickstart installation, booting from local media and having the Kickstart file on local media as well, the network will not be initialized. This means that any other Kickstart options requiring network access, such as pre-installation or post-installation scripts accessing a network location, will cause the installation to fail. This is a known issue; see BZ#1085310 for details.

To work around this issue, either use the ksdevice=link boot option, or add the --device=link option to the network command in your Kickstart file.


지정된 드라이버를 비활성화 할 때에 사용됩니다. 이는 현재 modprobe.blacklist= option에 의해 관리 됩니다.


FireWire 연결장치를 위한 지원을 비활성화 되었습니다. modprobe.blacklist= 선택 대신에 의해 FireWire 드라이버 (firewire_ohci)를 비활성화 할 수 있습니다:


제거된 부트 선택

다음 선택이 제거되었습니다. Fedora의 이전 출시에 존재 했었지만, 더 이상 사용 할 수 없습니다.


설치 프로그램의 `initramfs`는 이제 완전히 비-대화형이고, 이는 이 선택은 더 이상 사용 할 수 없다는 것을 의미합니다. ip= 을 네트워크 설정을 구성하는데 사용하세요.


This option forced Anaconda to use the /dev/ttyS0 console as the output. Use the console=/dev/ttyS0 (or similar) instead.


Specified the location of updates for the installation program. Use the inst.updates= option instead.

essid=, wepkey=, wpakey=

Configured wireless network access. Network configuration is now being handled by dracut, which does not support wireless networking, rendering these options useless.


Used in the past to configure additional low-level network settings. All network settings are now handled by the ip= option.


로더를 디버깅 할 수 있습니다. 대신에 rd.debug 를 사용하세요.


설치를 시작하기 전에 설치 미디어를 확인합니다. 옵션으로 대체되었습니다.


킥스타트 파일 원천으로 상세화된 플로피 디스크. 플로피 드라이브는 더 이상 지원하지 않습니다.


원격 표시가 구성되었습니다. inst.vnc 옵션으로 교체되었습니다.


텍스트 모드에서 설치 할 때에 추가된 UTF8 지원. UTF 지원은 이제 자동으로 동작합니다.


Used to disable IPv6 support in the installation program. IPv6 is now built into the kernel so the driver cannot be blacklisted; however, it is possible to disable IPv6 using the ipv6.disable option.


Upgrades are done in a different way in current Fedora releases. For more information about upgrading your system, see Upgrading Your Current System.


가상 랜(802.1q tag) 장치 구성에 사용되었습니다. 대신에 vlan= option을 사용하세요.


Used to enable DNF to handle package installation and dependency resolution in Fedora 21. DNF is now used by default and this option has been replaced with inst.nodnf, which reverts back to Yum.

유지보수 부트 방법 사용하기

메모리(램) 시험 적재하는 방법

Faults in memory (RAM) modules may cause your system to freeze or crash unpredictably. In some cases, memory faults may only cause errors with particular combinations of software. For this reason, you should test the memory of a computer before you install Fedora for the first time, even if it has previously run other operating systems.

Fedora includes the Memtest86+ memory testing application. To start memory testing mode, choose Troubleshooting > Memory test at the boot menu. Testing will begin immediately. By default, Memtest86+ carries out ten tests in every pass; a different configuration can be specified by accessing the configuration screen using the c key. After the first pass completes, a message will appear at the bottom informing you of the current status, and another pass will start automatically.

[application]*Memtest86+*은 바이오스 펌웨어와 함께 시스템에서만 동작합니다. UEFI 시스템을 위한 지원은 현재 사용 할 수 없습니다.

시스템 메모리를 시험하는 Memtest86+
Figure 1. Memtest86+ 사용한 메모리 점검

처리에서 시험 될 때에 표시되는 주요 화면은 세가지 주요 영역으로 다음과 같이 나눠집니다:

  • The upper left corner shows information about your system’s memory configuration - the amount of detected memory and processor cache and their throughputs and processor and chipset information. This information is detected when Memtest86+ starts.

  • The upper right corner displays information about the tests - progress of the current pass and the currently running test in that pass as well as a description of the test.

  • The central part of the screen is used to display information about the entire set of tests from the moment when the tool has started, such as the total time, the number of completed passes, number of detected errors and your test selection. On some systems, detailed information about the installed memory (such as the number of installed modules, their manufacturer, frequency and latency) will be also displayed here. After the each pass completes, a short summary will appear in this location. For example:

     Pass complete, no errors, press Esc to exit 

    If Memtest86+ detects an error, it will also be displayed in this area and highlighted red. The message will include detailed information such as which test detected a problem, the memory location which is failing, and others.

In most cases, a single successful pass (that is, a single run of all 10 tests) is sufficient to verify that your RAM is in good condition. In some rare circumstances, however, errors that went undetected on the first pass might appear on subsequent passes. To perform a thorough test on an important system, leave the tests running overnight or even for a few days in order to complete multiple passes.

The amount of time it takes to complete a single full pass of Memtest86+ varies depending on your system’s configuration (notably the RAM size and speed). For example, on a system with 2 GB of DDR2 memory at 667 MHz, a single pass will take roughly 20 minutes to complete.

언제든 Esc key 를 눌러서, 시험을 멈추고 자신의 셈틀을 재시작합니다.

For more information about using Memtest86+, see the official website at A README file is also located in /usr/share/doc/memtest86+-version/ on Fedora systems with the memtest86+ package installed.

부트 미디어 확인

You can test the integrity of an ISO-based installation source before using it to install Fedora. These sources include DVDs and ISO images stored on a local hard drive or NFS server. Verifying that the ISO images are intact before you attempt an installation helps to avoid problems that are often encountered during installation.

To test the integrity of an ISO image, append the to the boot loader command line. Note that this option is used automatically if you select the default installation option from the boot menu (Test this media & install Fedora).

복구 방법에서 당신의 컴퓨터 부팅

You may boot a command-line Linux system from an installation disc without actually installing Fedora on the computer. This enables you to use the utilities and functions of a running Linux system to modify or repair already installed operating systems.

To load the rescue system with the installation disk or USB drive, choose Rescue a Fedora system from the Troubleshooting submenu in the boot menu, or use the inst.rescue boot option.

Specify the language, keyboard layout and network settings for the rescue system with the screens that follow. The final setup screen configures access to the existing system on your computer.

기본값으로, 복구 방법은 기존 운영 체제를 /mnt/sysimage/ 디렉토리에 있는 복구 시스템에 연결합니다.

1. This option uses NFS protocol version 3 by default. To use a different version, add +nfsvers=X to options.
2. Brings up the specified interface using the specified method of automatic configuration, such as dhcp, but overrides the automatically obtained IP address, gateway, netmask, hostname or other specified parameter. All parameters are optional; only specify the ones you wish to override and automatically obtained values will be used for the others.