Installing Using Anaconda

This chapter provides step-by-step instructions for installing Fedora using the Anaconda installer. The bulk of this chapter describes installation using the graphical user interface. A text mode is also available for systems with no graphical display, but this mode is limited in certain aspects (for example, custom partitioning is not possible in text mode).

If your system does not have the ability to use the graphical mode, you can:

  • Use Kickstart to automate the installation as described in Automating the Installation with Kickstart

  • Perform the graphical installation remotely by connecting to the installation system from another computer with a graphical display using the VNC (Virtual Network Computing) protocol - see Installing Using VNC

Introduction to Anaconda

The Fedora installer, Anaconda, is different from most other operating system installation programs due to its parallel nature. Most installers follow a fixed path: you must choose your language first, then you configure network, then installation type, then partitioning, etc. There is usually only one way to proceed at any given time.

In Anaconda you are only required to select your language and locale first, and then you are presented with a central screen, where you can configure most aspects of the installation in any order you like. This does not apply to all parts of the installation process, however - for example, when installing from a network location, you must configure the network before you can select which packages to install.

Some screens will be automatically configured depending on your hardware and the type of media you used to start the installation. You can still change the detected settings in any screen. Screens which have not been automatically configured, and therefore require your attention before you begin the installation, are marked by an exclamation mark. You can not start the actual installation process before you finish configuring these settings.

Additional differences appear in certain screens; notably the custom partitioning process is very different from other Linux distributions. These differences are described in each screen’s subsection.

Consoles and Logging During the Installation

The following sections describe how to access logs and an interactive shell during the installation. This is useful when troubleshooting problems, but should not be necessary in most cases.

Accessing Consoles

The Fedora installer uses the tmux terminal multiplexer to display and control several windows you can use in addition to the main interface. Each of these windows serves a different purpose - they display several different logs, which can be used to troubleshoot any issues during the installation, and one of the windows provides an interactive shell prompt with root privileges, unless this prompt was specifically disabled using a boot option or a Kickstart command.

In general, there is no reason to leave the default graphical installation environment unless you need to diagnose an installation problem.

The terminal multiplexer is running in virtual console 1. To switch from the actual installation environment to tmux, press Ctrl+Alt+F1. To go back to the main installation interface which runs in virtual console 6, press Ctrl+Alt+F6.

If you choose text mode installation, you will start in virtual console 1 (tmux), and switching to console 6 will open a shell prompt instead of a graphical interface.

The console running tmux has 5 available windows; their contents are described in the table below, along with keyboard shortcuts used to access them. Note that the keyboard shortcuts are two-part: first press Ctrl+b, then release both keys, and press the number key for the window you want to use.

You can also use Ctrl+b n and Ctrl+b p to switch to the next or previous tmux window, respectively.

Table 1. Available tmux Windows
Shortcut Contents

Ctrl+b 1

Main installation program window. Contains text-based prompts (during text mode installation or if you use VNC direct mode), and also some debugging information.

Ctrl+b 2

Interactive shell prompt with root privileges.

Ctrl+b 3

Installation log; displays messages stored in /tmp/anaconda.log.

Ctrl+b 4

Storage log; displays messages related storage devices from kernel and system services, stored in /tmp/storage.log.

Ctrl+b 5

Program log; displays messages from other system utilities, stored in /tmp/program.log.

In addition to displaying diagnostic information in tmux windows, Anaconda also generates several log files, which can be transferred from the installation system. These log files are described in Log Files Generated During the Installation, and directions for transferring them from the installation system are available in Transferring Log Files from the Installation System.

Saving Screenshots

You can press Shift+Print Screen at any time during the graphical installation to capture the current screen. These screenshots are saved to /tmp/anaconda-screenshots.

Additionally, you can use the autostep --autoscreenshot command in a Kickstart file to capture and save each step of the installation automatically. See autostep (optional) - Go Through Every Screen for details.

Installing in Text Mode

Text mode installation offers an interactive, non-graphical interface for installing Fedora. This may be useful on systems with no graphical capabilities; however, you should always consider the available alternatives before starting a text-based installation. Text mode is limited in the amount of choices you can make during the installation.

There are two alternatives to text mode which can both be used even if the installation system does not have a graphical display. You can either connect to the installation system using VNC and perform an interactive graphical installation remotely (see Installing Using VNC), or you can create a Kickstart file to perform the installation automatically (see Automating the Installation with Kickstart).

The main menu in during a text-based installation.
Figure 1. Text Mode Installation

Installation in text mode follows a pattern similar to the graphical installation: There is no single fixed progression; you can configure many settings in any order you want using the main status screen. Screens which have already been configured, either automatically or by you, are marked as [x], and screens which require your attention before the installation can begin are marked with [!]. Available commands are displayed below the list of available options.

Limits of interactive text mode installation include:

  • The installer will always use the English language and the US English keyboard layout. You can configure your language and keyboard settings, but these settings will only apply to the installed system, not to the installation.

  • You can not configure any advanced storage methods (LVM, software RAID, FCoE, zFCP and iSCSI).

  • It is not possible to configure custom partitioning; you must use one of the automatic partitioning settings. You also cannot configure where the boot loader will be installed.

To start a text mode installation, boot the installation with the inst.text boot option used either at the boot command line in the boot menu, or in your PXE server configuration. See Booting the Installation for information about booting and using boot options.

Installing in the Graphical User Interface

The graphical installation interface is the preferred method of manually installing Fedora. It allows you full control over all available settings, including custom partitioning and advanced storage configuration, and it is also localized to many languages other than English, allowing you to perform the entire installation in a different language. The graphical mode is used by default when you boot the system from local media (a CD, DVD or a USB flash drive).

The sections below discuss each screen available in the installation process. Note that due to the installer’s parallel nature, most of the screens do not have to be completed in the order in which they are described here.

Each screen in the graphical interface contains a Help button. This button opens the Yelp help browser displaying the section of the Fedora Installation Guide relevant to the current screen.

You can also control the graphical installer with your keyboard. Use Tab and Shift+Tab to cycle through active control elements (buttons, check boxes, etc.) on the current screen, Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, and Left and Right to scroll through horizontal toolbars or table entries. Space or Enter can be used to select or remove a highlighted item from selection and to expand and collapse drop-down menus.

Additionally, elements in each screen can be toggled using their respective shortcuts. These shortcuts are highlighted (underlined) when you hold down the Alt key; to toggle that element, press Alt+X, where X is the highlighted letter.

Your current keyboard layout is displayed in the top right hand corner. Only one layout is configured by default; if you configure more than layout in the Keyboard Layout screen (Keyboard Layout), you can switch between them by clicking the layout indicator.

Welcome Screen and Language Selection

The first screen displayed immediately after the graphical installer starts is the Welcome screen.

Screenshot of the Welcome screen showing language selection options.
Figure 2. Welcome Screen

First, select your preferred language in the left hand side column, and then select your locale from the right hand side column. You can use the text input field in the bottom left corner to search for your language instead of looking for it in the full list of more than 70 languages.

The language you select on this screen will be used during the installation, and it will also be used on the installed system by default. You can change the language for the installed system later, but once you click Continue on this screen, you will not be able to go back and change the language used inside the installer itself.

One language is pre-selected by default on top of the list. If network access is configured at this point (for example, if you booted from a network server instead of local media), the pre-selected language will be determined based on automatic location detection using the GeoIP module. Alternatively, if you used the inst.lang= option on the boot command line or in your PXE server configuration, this language will be selected by default, but you will still be able to change it.

After you select your language and locale, click Continue to confirm your selection and proceed to Installation Summary.

If you are installing a pre-release version of Fedora, a message will be shown after you click Continue warning you about the pre-release status of your installation media. Click I accept my fate to continue with the installation, or Get me out of here to quit the installation and reboot your system.

Resumen de la Instalación

La pantalla Resumen de la Instalación es la localización central para configurar una instalación. A la mayoría de las opciones que pueden ser configuradas durante la instalación se accede desde aquí.

Pantalla Resumen de la Instalación
Figure 3. Resumen de la Instalación

Si usted utiliza una opción Kickstart o una opción de arranque para especificar un repositorio de instalación en una red, pero la red no está disponible al inicio de la instalación, el instalador mostrará la pantalla Configuración de Red para que usted configure una conexión de red antes de mostrar la pantalla Resumen de la Instalación.

La pantalla resumen consta de diversos enlaces a otras pantallas, separadas en categorías. Estos enlaces pueden estar en diversos estados, que se indican gráficamente:

  • Un símbolo de advertencia (triángulo amarillo con una marca de exclamación) cerca de un icono significa que una pantalla requiere su atención antes de iniciar la instalación. Esto normalmente sucede con la pantalla Destino de la Instalación, porque aunque hay una variante de partición automática predeterminada, siempre tiene que, al menos, confirmar esta selección, aunque no desee hacer ningún cambio.

  • Si un enlace está en gris, significa que el instalador está configurando esta sección en este momento y debe esperar a que la configuración termine antes de acceder a esta pantalla. Esto normalmente sucede cuando usted cambia la fuente de instalación en la pantalla Fuente de la Instalación y el instalador está probando la nueva localización de la fuente y obteniendo una lista de los paquetes disponibles.

  • Las pantallas con el texto en negro y sin símbolo de advertencia indican que esa pantalla no requiere su atención. Usted puede cambiar los ajustes de esas pantallas, pero no es necesario que lo haga para completar la instalación. Esto normalmente sucede con los ajustes de ubicación, ya que o bien se ha detectado automáticamente o se ha configurado en la pantalla anterior cuando usted selecciono el idioma y el lugar.

Se muestra un mensaje de advertencia en la parte inferior de la pantalla resumen y el botón Empezar la Instalación está en gris, siempre que al menos un elemento no se haya configurado todavía.

Pantallazo de varios iconos en la pantalla Resumen de la Instalación
Figure 4. Icono de Estado en el Resumen de la Instalación

Cada pantalla también tiene un texto explicativo debajo de su título, mostrando los ajustes que están configurados en esa pantalla. Este texto puede esta concatenado; en este caso, mueva el cursor sobre él y espere a que aparezca una herramienta de con el texto completo.

Una entrada en el Resumen de la Instalación muestra una descripción truncada y una herramienta de información con el texto completo.
Figure 5. Herramienta de Información en el Resumen de la Instalación

Una vez que ha configurado todo lo que se requiere para la instalación, puede presionar el botón Empezar Instalación para iniciar la instalación de Fedora. Esto le llevará a Configuración y Progreso de la Instalación. Advierta que como el texto debajo del botón dice, no se escribirá nada en su disco dura antes de que usted presione este botón. Usted puede presionar Salir en cualquier punto; esto descartará todos los cambios que haya hecho y reinicia el sistema.

Date & Time

The Date & Time screen allows you to configure time and date-related settings for your system. This screen is automatically configured based on the settings you selected in Welcome Screen and Language Selection, but you can change your date, time and location settings before you begin the installation.

Screenshot of the Date & Time screen
Figure 6. Date & Time

First, select your Region using the drop-down menu in the top left corner of the screen. Then, select your City, or the city closest to your location in the same time zone. Selecting a specific location helps Fedora ensure that your time is always set correctly including automatic time changes for daylight savings time if applicable.

You can also select a time zone relative to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) without setting your location to a specific region. To do so, select Etc as your region.

The list of cities and regions comes from the Time Zone Database (tzdata) public domain, which is maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). The Fedora Project can not add cities or regions into this database. You can find more information at the IANA official website.

The switch labeled Network Time in the top right corner of the screen can be used to enable or disable network time synchronization using the Network Time Protocol (NTP). Enabling this option will keep your system time correct as long as the system can access the internet. By default, four NTP pools are configured; you can add others and disable or remove the default ones by clicking the gear wheel button next to the switch.

A dialog window allowing you to add or remove NTP pools from your system configuration
Figure 7. The Add and mark for usage NTP servers dialog

If you disable network time synchronization, the controls at the bottom of the screen will become active, and you will be able to set the current time and date manually.

After configuring your time and date settings, press the Done button in the top left corner to return to Installation Summary.

Keyboard Layout

The Keyboard Layout screen allows you to set up one or more keyboard layouts for your system and a way to switch between them. One keyboard layout is configured automatically based on your selection in Welcome Screen and Language Selection, but you can change this layout and add additional ones before you begin the installation.

Keyboard layouts are a separate setting from system languages, and these two settings can be mixed as you see fit.

All settings configured in this screen will be available on the installed system, and they will also become immediately available inside the installer. You can use the keyboard icon in the top right corner of any screen, or the keyboard switch you configured in this screen, to cycle between your configured layouts.

The keyboard layout configuration screen
Figure 8. Keyboard Layout

The left half of the screen contains a window listing all currently configured layouts. The order in which the layouts are displayed is important - the same order will be used when switching between layouts, and the first listed layout will be the default on your system.

The text field on the right side of the screen can be used to test the currently selected layout.

You can click a layout in the list to highlight it. At the bottom of the list, there is a set of buttons:

  • The + button adds a new layout. When you press this button, a new window opens with a list of all available layouts, grouped by language. You can find a layout by browsing the list, or you can use the search bar at the bottom of this window. When you find the layout you want to add, highlight it and press Add.

  • The - button removes the currently highlighted layout.

  • The up and down buttons can be used to move the highlighted layout up or down in the list.

  • The keyboard button opens a new window which offers a visual representation of the highlighted layout.

If you use a layout that cannot accept Latin characters, such as Russian, you are advised to also add the English (United States) layout and configure a keyboard combination to switch between the two layouts. If you only select a layout without Latin characters, you may be unable to enter a valid root password and user credentials later in the installation process. This may prevent you from completing the installation.

You can also optionally configure a keyboard switch which can be used to cycle between available layouts. To do so, click the Options button on the right side of the screen. The Layout Switching Options dialog will open, allowing you to configure one or more keys or key combinations for switching. Select one or more key combinations using the check boxes next to them, and click OK to confirm your selection.

After you finish configuring keyboard layouts and switches, click Done in the top left corner to return to Installation Summary.

Soporte de Idioma

La pantalla Soporte de Idioma le permite configurar los ajustes de lenguaje para su sistema. El idioma predeterminado se determina por su selección en Pantalla de Bienvenida y Selección de Idioma y el soporte para este lenguaje no se puede quitar.Usted solo puede añadir lenguajes adicionales, los que estarán disponibles sobre el sistema instalado - no durante la instalación.

Si desea cambiar el idioma predeterminado, o el idioma usado durante la instalación, usted debe reiniciar su sistema, iniciar el instalador otra vez y seleccionar un idioma diferente Pantalla de Bienvenida y Selección de Idioma.

Añadiendo soporte para otro lenguaje no se configura automáticamente el correspondiente esquema de teclado. Los esquemas tienen ajustes configurados en Esquema de Teclado.

La pantalla de configuración de idioma. El lado izquierdo muestra que al menor una de las variantes de Inglés y Francés ha sido seleccionada; la columna de la derecha muestra Francés (Francia) y Francés (Canadá) están seleccionadas en el grupo Francés seleccionado en el grupo Francés actualmente resaltado.
Figure 9. Soporte de Idioma

El panel izquierdo contiene una lista de grupos de idiomas disponibles como Inglés o Búlgaro. Si se selecciona al menos un idioma de un grupo se mostrará una marca de verificación cerca del grupo y las entrada de la lista será resaltada. Esto le permite ver qué idiomas han sido configurados para ser soportados.

Para añadir soporte para uno o más idiomas adicionales, pulse un grupo en el panel izquierdo y seleccione una o más variantes regionales en el panel derecho usando las cajas de verificación para listar las entradas. Repite este proceso para todos los idiomas para los que quiera instalar soporte.

Habilitando el soporte para algunos idiomas (normalmente idiomas que no usan escritura latina) se instalarán paquetes adicionales - por ejemplo, habilitando soporte para uno o más idiomas del grupo Arábigo se instalará también el grupo de paquetes arabic-support. Para más información sobre los paquetes, vea Selección de Software.

Una vez que haya hecho sus selecciones, pulse Hecho en la esquina superio izquierda para volver a Resumen de la Instalación.

Installation Source

The Installation Source screen allows you to specify a location (local or on the network) from which packages will be downloaded and installed on your system. This screen will be configured automatically in most cases, but you can change your settings or add additional sources.

Normally, when you first enter the Installation Summary screen, the installer will attempt to configure an installation source based on the type of media you used to boot. The full Fedora Server DVD will configure the source as local media, the netinst ISO image will configure the closest network mirror, etc. This process takes some time, especially if the default source is a network mirror. If you plan to use a custom installation source, use the inst.askmethod boot option to skip the initial configuration; this will allow you to enter this screen immediately. See Specifying the Installation Source for information about boot options.

The Installation Source screen
Figure 10. Installation Source

The following options are available. Note that not all of them may be displayed.

Auto-detected installation media

This is the option selected by default if you started the installer from media containing an installation source, such as a live DVD. No additional configuration is necessary. You can click the Verify button check the media integrity.

ISO file

This option will appear if the installation program detected a partitioned hard drive with mountable file systems during boot. Select this option, click the Choose an ISO button, and browse to the installation ISO file’s location on your system. You can click the Verify button to check the file’s integrity.

On the network

Use this option to download packages to be installed from a network location instead of local media. This is the default selection on network installation media.

In most cases, the Closest mirror option available from the protocol selection drop-down menu is preferable. If this option is selected, packages for your system will be downloaded from the most suitable location (mirror).

To manually configure a network-based installation source, use the drop-down menu to specify the protocol to be used when downloading packages. This setting depends on the server you want to use. Then, type the server address (without the protocol) into the address field. If you choose NFS, a second input field will appear where you can specify custom NFS mount options.

When selecting an NFS installation source, you must specify the address with a colon (:) character separating the host name from the path. For example:

server.example.com:/path/to/directory

To configure a proxy for an HTTP or HTTPS source, click the Proxy setup button. Check Enable HTTP proxy and type the URL into the Proxy URL box. If the proxy server requires authentication, check Use Authentication and enter your user name and password. Click OK to finish the configuration.

If your HTTP or HTTPS URL refers to a repository mirror list, mark the check box under the address field.

You can also specify additional repositories in the Additional repositories section to gain access to more installation environments and software add-ons. All environments and add-ons will be available for selection in Software Selection once you finish configuring the sources.

To add a repository, click the + button. To delete a repository, select one in the list and click the - button. Click the arrow icon to revert to the previous list of repositories, i.e. to replace current entries with those that were present at the time you entered the Installation Source screen. To activate or deactivate a repository, click the check box in the Enabled column at each entry in the list.

You can name your additional repository and configure it the same way as the primary repository on the network using the input fields on the right side of the section.

Once you have selected your installation source, click Done in the top left corner to return to Installation Summary.

Selección de Software

La pantalla Selección de Software le permite elegir un Entorno Base y Complementos. Estas opciones controlan qué paquetes software serán instalados en su sistema durante el proceso de instalación.

Esta pantalla está sólo disponible si Fuente de la Instalación está configurada apropiadamente y sólo después de que el instalador haya descargado los metadatos de los paquetes de la fuente.

It is not possible to select specific packages during a manual installation. You can only select pre-defined environments and add-ons. If you need to control exactly which packages are installed, you must use a Kickstart file and define the packages in the %packages section. See Automating the Installation with Kickstart for information about Kickstart installations.

La disponibilidad de entornos y complementos depende de su fuente de instalación. De forma predeterminada, la selección depende del medio de instalación que haya usado para el inicio de la instalación; la imagen de instalación Fedora Server tendrá disponibles distintos entornos y complementos para seleccionar que, por ejemplo, la imagen Fedora Cloud. Puede cambiar esto configurando una fuente de instalación diferente que tenga entornos distintos.

La pantalla Selección de Software. En el lado izquierdo
Figure 11. Selección de Software

Para configurar su selección de software, elija primero un entorno en el lado izquierdo de la pantalla. Sólo se puede elegir un entorno, aunque haya más disponibles. Después, en el lado derecho de la pantalla, seleccione uno o más complementos que desee instalar marcando la caja de verificación próxima a cada complemento.

The list of add-ons is divided into two parts by a horizontal line. Add-ons above this line are defined as part of your chosen environment; if you select a different environment, the add-ons available here will change. The add-ons displayed below the separator are not specific to your chosen environment.

Environments and add-ons are defined using a comps.xml file in your installation source (for example, in the repodata/ directory on the full Fedora Server installation DVD). Review this file to see exactly which packages will be installed as part of a certain environment or add-on. For more information about the comps.xml file, see %packages (required) - Package Selection.

After you finish configuring your software selection, click Done in the top left corner to return to Installation Summary.

Destino de la instalación

La pantalla Destino de la Instalación le permite configurar las opciones de almacenamiento - a saber, que discos serán usados como destino de la instalación para Fedora. Siempre se debe seleccionar al menor un disco para que la instalación siga adelante.

Para información sobre la teoría y conceptos detrás del particionado de discos en Linux, vea Esquema Recomendado de Particionado.

Si planea usar un disco que ya contenga algunos datos - por ejemplo, si desea encoger una partición Microsoft Windows existente e instalar Fedora como segundo sistema o s está actualizando una versión anterior de Fedora, asegúrese de hacer copia de seguridad de cualquier dato importante primero. La manipulación de particiones tiene riesgos siempre - si se interrumpe el proceso o falla por cualquier razón (error del instalador, fallo de hardware, caída de alimentación, etc.), cualquier dato que ya esté en el disco puede que sea imposible de recuperar.

La pantalla Destino de la Instalación. Hay dos discos locales estándar disponibles
Figure 12. Destino de la instalación

En la parte superior de la pantalla, se muestran todos los dispositivos de almacenamiento disponibles (discos duros SATA, IDE y SCSI, unidades flash USB, etc.) en la sección Discos Locales Estándar. Los discos locales se detectan cuando se inicia el instalador - cualquier dispositivo de almacenamiento conectado después de que la instalación haya comenzado no será mostrado.

Si necesita configurar dispositivos de almacenamiento local adicional, seleccione Configuraré el particionado y pulse Hecho para ir a Particionado Manual. Después, conecte cualquier disco duro nuevo que desee hacer disponible durante la instalación y pulse el botón marcado por una flecha circular en el conjunto de controles debajo de la lista de puntos de montaje en el lado izquierdo de la pantalla. En la ventana de diálogo que se abre, pulse Rescan Discos y espere hasta que el proceso de escaneo se complete. Después pulse OK para volver a Destino de la Instalación; todos los discos detectados incluyendo los nuevos serán mostrados en la sección Discos Locales Estándar.

La sección Discos Especializados y en Red abajo muestra almacenamiento en red avanzado (como discos iSCSI y FCoE) configurados actualmente. Cuando abre esta pantalla por primera vez, no se mostrarán todos os dispositivos puesto que no pueden ser detectados automáticamente; para buscar dispositivos de almacenamiento en red, pulse el botón Añadir un disco y siga con Destino de la Instalación - Discos Especializados y en Red. Cualquier almacenamiento en red que configure serán mostrado entonces en Discos Especializados y en Red de la misma forma en la que los discos locales se muestran arriba.

All storage devices which will be used to install Fedora have a black circle icon with a white check mark on them. Disks not marked by this icon will not be used during the installation - they will be ignored if you choose automatic partitioning, and they will not be available in manual partitioning.

USB storage devices such as flash drives and external disks will be shown in the Local Standard Disks as well, and they will be available for selection the same way internal hard drives are. Make sure to not select any removable storage as installation targets unless you really want to do so. If you accidentally use a removable drive to install Fedora and then unplug it, your system will likely become unusable.

Disk selection in the Installation Destination screen. Two disks are displayed; only the one on the right side will be used
Figure 13. Unselected and Selected Disk

After you select all disks you want to install Fedora, select one of the two options in the Other Storage Options section:

  • Automatically configure partitioning - If this option is selected, then after you press Done in the top left corner of the screen, the installer will determine the total amount of space on all selected disks, and it will create a Logical Volume Management (LVM) layout suitable for your system. The specifics of this layout depend on whether your system uses BIOS or UEFI firmware, the total amount of free space on your disks, and the amount of RAM on your system (which determines the size of your swap space).

    With automatic partitioning, you can also select the I would like to make additional space available option below. Use this option if you want to reclaim space from an existing partitioning layout - for example, if a disk you want to use already contains a different operating system, and you want to make this system’s partitions smaller to allow more room for Fedora. The Reclaim space dialog which opens if this option is selected is described later in this section.

  • I will configure partitioning - Select this option and press Done in the top left corner of the screen to configure your system’s partitioning layout manually. This requires some knowledge of the theory behind disk partitions and related concepts, but gives you full control over the way the system will be installed. For instructions for manual partitioning, see Manual Partitioning.

Additionally, you can select Encrypt my data; this will encrypt all partitions except the ones needed to boot the system (such as /boot) using Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS). Encrypting your hard drive is recommended. For detailed information about LUKS encryption, see the Fedora Security Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/.

If you lose the LUKS passphrase, any encrypted partitions and the data on them will become completely inaccessible. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase. However, if you perform a Kickstart installation, you can save encryption passphrases and create backup encryption passphrases during the installation. See Automating the Installation with Kickstart for information about Kickstart installations.

To control which one of your selected storage devices will contain the boot loader, click the Full disk summary and bootloader link in the bottom left corner of the screen, and follow the instructions in Boot Loader Installation. Note that while in most cases it is sufficient to leave the boot loader in the default location, some configurations (for example, systems which require chain loading from another boot loader) will require the boot drive to be specified manually.

After you select storage devices, choose between automatic and manual partitioning, configure encryption and boot loader location, press Done in the top left corner of the screen. Then, depending on your settings, the following will happen:

  • If you chose to encrypt your hard drive, the Disk Encryption Passphrase dialog will appear. Enter your chosen passphrase into the Passphrase and Confirm fields. When you do so, the passphrase will be automatically evaluated and its strength will be displayed, along with suggestions on how to make it stronger if the installer has determined it to be weak. For information about creating strong passwords, see Fedora Security Guide.

  • If you selected automatic partitioning and the I would like to make additional space available, or if there is not enough free space on your selected hard drives to install Fedora, the Reclaim Space dialog will appear. This dialog lists all disk devices you have configured and all partitions on those devices. The bottom right corner of the dialog displays information about how much space the system needs for at least a minimal installation and how much space you have reclaimed.

    If you use the Reclaim Space dialog to delete a partition, all data on that partition will be lost. If you want to preserve your data, use the Shrink option, not the Delete option.

    First, review the displayed list of available storage devices. The Reclaimable Space column shows how much space can be reclaimed from each entry. To reclaim space, select a disk or partition, and press either the Delete button to delete that partition (or all partitions on a selected disk), or Shrink to use free space on a partition while preserving existing data. Alternatively, you can press Delete all in the bottom right corner; this will delete all existing partitions on all disks and make this space available to Fedora, but all existing data on all disks will be lost.

    After you free enough space for your Fedora installation, press Reclaim space to finish.

    No changes to any disks will be made until you press Begin Installation in Installation Summary. The Reclaim Space dialog only marks partitions for resizing or deletion, but no such action is performed immediately.

  • If you selected the I will configure partitioning option, pressing Done will open the Manual Partitioning screen. See Manual Partitioning for further instructions.

Boot Loader Installation

Fedora uses GRUB2 (GRand Unified Bootloader version 2) as its boot loader. The boot loader is the first program that runs when the computer starts and is responsible for loading and transferring control to an operating system. GRUB2 can boot any compatible operating system (including Microsoft Windows) and can also use chain loading to transfer control to other boot loaders for unsupported operating systems.

Installing GRUB2 may overwrite your existing boot loader.

If you have other operating systems already installed, the Fedora installer will attempt to automatically detect and configure the boot loader to start them. You can manually configure any additional operating systems after you finish the installation, if they are not detected properly. For instructions on editing GRUB2 configuration, see the Fedora System Administrator’s Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/

If you are installing Fedora system with more than one disk, you may want to manually specify where the bootloader should be installed. Click the Full disk summary and bootloader link at the bottom of the Installation Destination screen. The Selected Disks dialog will appear. The bootloader will be installed on the device of your choice, or on a UEFI system, the EFI system partition will be created on that device during guided partitioning.

The Selected Disks dialog
Figure 14. Boot Device Selection

In the Boot column, a "tick" icon marks one of the devices as the intended boot device. To change the boot device, select a device from the list and click the Set as Boot Device button to install the boot loader there instead. Only one device can be set as the boot device.

To decline installation of a new boot loader, select the device currently marked for boot and click the Do not install bootloader button. This will remove the tick and ensure GRUB2 is not installed on any device.

If you choose not to install a boot loader for any reason, you will not be able to boot the system directly, and you must use another boot method, such as a stand-alone commercial boot loader application. Use this option only if you are sure you have another way to boot your system.

The boot loader may also require a special partition to be created, depending on whether your system uses BIOS or UEFI firmware and also depending on whether the boot drive has a GUID Partition Table (GPT) or a Master Boot Record (MBR, also known as msdos) label. If you use automatic partitioning, the installer will create this partition if needed. For details, see Recommended Partitioning Scheme.

Installation Destination - Specialized & Network Disks

This part of the Installation Destination screen allows you to configure non-local storage devices, namely iSCSI and FCoE storage. This section will mostly be useful to advanced users who have a need for networked disks. For instructions on setting up local hard drives, see Installation Destination.

This section only explains how to make existing network disks available inside the installer. It does not explain how to set up your network or a storage server, only how to connect to them.

A list of currently configured network storage devices
Figure 15. Installation Destination - Network Storage Filters

The screen contains a list of all currently available (discovered) network storage devices. When the screen is opened for the first time, the list will be empty in most cases because no network storage has been discovered - the installer makes no attempt at discovering this unless you configure network disks using a Kickstart file.

To add one or more storage devices to the screen so you can search them and use them in the installation, click Add iSCSI Target or Add FCoE SAN in the bottom right corner of the screen, and follow the instructions in Add iSCSI Target or Add FCoE SAN, depending on which type of network storage you want to add.

Network storage devices successfully discovered and configured by the installer will then be displayed in the main list, along with identifying information such as Name, WWID, Model and Target. To sort the list by a specific column (for example WWID), click the column’s heading.

On lower display resolutions, the list may be too wide to fit on the screen, and some of the columns or buttons may be hidden initially. Use the horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the list to move your view and see all available table columns and controls.

There are three tabs on the top of the list, which display different information:

Search

Displays all available devices, regardless of their type, and allows you to filter them either by their World Wide Identifier (WWID) or by the port, target, or logical unit number (LUN) at which they are accessed.

Multipath Devices

Storage devices accessible through more than one path, such as through multiple SCSI controllers or Fiber Channel ports on the same system.

The installation program only detects multipath storage devices with serial numbers that are 16 or 32 characters long.

Other SAN Devices

Devices available on a Storage Area Network (SAN).

Depending on the tab you are currently in, you can filter the discovered devices by using the Filter By field. Some of the filtering options are automatically populated based on discovered devices (for example, if you select Filter By: Vendor, another drop-down menu will appear showing all vendors of all discovered devices). Other filters require your input (for example when filtering by WWID), and present you with a text input field instead of a drop-down menu.

In the list (regardless of how it is filtered), each device is presented on a separate row, with a check box to its left. Mark the check box to make the device available during the installation process; this will cause this device (node) to be shown in the Specialized & Network Disks section in Installation Destination. There, you can select the disk as an installation target and proceed with either manual or automatic partitioning.

Devices that you select here are not automatically wiped by the installation process. Selecting a device on this screen does not, in itself, place data stored on the device at risk. Also note that any devices that you do not select here to form part of the installed system can be added to the system after installation by modifying the /etc/fstab file.

When you have selected the storage devices to make available during installation, click Done to return to Installation Destination.

Añadir Objetivo iSCSI

Para usar dispositivos de almacenamiento iSCSI, el instalador debe ser capaz de descubrirlos como objetivos iSCSI y ser capaz de crear una sesuñib iSCSI para acceder a ellos. Ambos pasos pueden requerir un nombre de usuario y contraseña para autenticiación Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP).

También puede configurar un objetivo iSCSI para autenticar el iniciador iSCSI sobre el sistema al que están enganchado el objetivo (CHAP reverso), tanto para el descubrimiento como para la sesión. Usados juntos, CHAP y CHAP reverso se denominan CHAP mutuo o CHAP de dos caminos. CHAP mutuo suministra el mayor nivel de seguridad para conexiones iSCSI, particularmente si el nombre de usuario y la contraseña son diferentes para la autenticación CHAP y para la autenticación CHAP reversa.

Siga el procedimiento de abajo para añadir un objetivo de almacenamiento iSCSI a su sistema.

Añadir Objetivo iSCSI
  1. Pulse el botón Añadir Objetivo iSCSI ben la esquina inferior derecha de la pantalla Destino de la Instalación - Discos Especializados y en Red. Se abrirá una nueva ventana de diálogo titulada Añadir Objetivo de Almacenamiento iSCSI.

  2. Introduzca la dirección IP del objetivo iSCSI en el campo Dirección IP Objetivo.

  3. Suministre un nombre en el campo Nombre de Iniciador iSCSI para el iniciador iSCSI en el formato Nombre Cualificado iSCSI (IQN). Una entrada válida IQN contiene:

    • La cadena iqn. (incluyendo el punto).

    • Un código de fecha especificando el año y el mes en el que el nombre de dominio o subdominio en Internet de su organización fue registrado, representado como cuatro dígitos para el año, un guión y dos dígitos para el mes seguido de un punto. Por ejemplo, representa Septiembre de 2010 cómo 2010-09.

    • El nombre de dominio o subdominio de Internet de su organización, presentado en orden inverso order (cn el dominio de nivel más alto primero). Por ejemplo, representa el subdominio storage.example.com como com.example.storage.

    • A colon (:) followed by a string which uniquely identifies this particular iSCSI initiator within your domain or subdomain. For example, :diskarrays-sn-a8675309

      A complete IQN will therefore look as follows:

      iqn.2010-09.com.example.storage:diskarrays-sn-a8675309

      An example using the correct format is also displayed below the input field for reference.

      For more information about IQNs, see 3.2.6. iSCSI Names in RFC 3720 - Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI), available from https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3720#section-3.2.6 and 1. iSCSI Names and Addresses in RFC 3721 - Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) Naming and Discovery, available from https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3721#section-1.

  4. Specify the type of authentication to use for iSCSI discovery using the Discovery Authentication Type drop-down menu. Depending on which type of authentication you selected, additional input fields (such as CHAP Username and CHAP Password may then become visible. Fill in your authentication credentials; these should be provided by your organization.

  5. Click the Start Discovery button. The installer will now attempt to discover an iSCSI target based on the information you provided, and if the target requires CHAP or reverse CHAP authentication, it will attempt to use the credentials you provided. This process may take some time (generally less than 30 seconds), depending on your network.

    If the discovery was not successful, an error message will be displayed in the dialog window. This message will vary based on which part of the discovery failed. If the installer did not find the target you specified at all, you should check the IP address; if the problem is an authentication error, make sure you entered all CHAP and reverse CHAP credentials correctly and that you have access to the iSCSI target.

    The No nodes discovered error message may also mean that all nodes on the address you specified are already configured. During discovery, Anaconda ignores nodes which have already been added.

    If the discovery was successful, you will see a list of all discovered nodes.

  6. Select one or more nodes you want to log in to by marking or unmarking the check box next to each node discovered on the target. Below the list, select again the type of authentication you want to use; you can also select the Use the credentials from discovery option if the CHAP/reverse CHAP user name and password you used to discover the target are also valid for logging in to it.

    After selecting all nodes you want to use, click Log In to initiate an iSCSI session. Anaconda will attempt to log in to all selected nodes. If the login process is succesful, the Add iSCSI Storage Target dialog will close, and all nodes you have configured will now be shown in the list of network disks in Installation Destination - Specialized & Network Disks.

You can repeat this procedure to discover additional iSCSI targets, or to add more nodes from a previously configured target. However, note that once you click the Start Discovery button for the first time, you will not be able to change the iSCSI Initiator Name. If you made an error when configuring the initiator name, you must restart the installation.

Añadir FCoE SAN

El siguiente procedimiento explica como añadir dispositivos de almacenamiento Canal de Fibra sobre Ethernet (FCoE) y hacerlos disponibles durante la instalación:

Añadir Objetivo FCoE
  1. Pulse el botón Añadir FCoE SAN en la esquina inferior derecha de Destina de la Instalación - Discos Especializados y en Red. Se abrirá un nueva ventana de diálogo.

  2. Seleccione la interfaz de red (NIC) que está conectada a su conmutador FCoE en el menú desplegable. Advierta que esta interfaz de red debe ser configurada y conectada - vea Red y Nombre de Host.

  3. Debajo del menú desplegable NIC hay dos elecciones:

    Use DCB

    Data Center Bridging (DCB) is a set of enhancements to the Ethernet protocols designed to increase the efficiency of Ethernet connections in storage networks and clusters. This option should only be enabled for network interfaces that require a host-based DCBX client. Configurations on interfaces that implement a hardware DCBX client should leave this check box empty.

    Use auto vlan

    This option indicates whether VLAN discovery should be performed. If this box is checked, then the FCoE Initiation Protocol (FIP) VLAN discovery protocol will run on the Ethernet interface once the link configuration has been validated. If they are not already configured, network interfaces for any discovered FCoE VLANs will be automatically created and FCoE instances will be created on the VLAN interfaces. This option is enabled by default.

  4. After you select which interface and options to use, click Add FCoE Disk(s). Discovered FCoE storage devices will be displayed under the Other SAN Devices tab in Installation Destination - Specialized & Network Disks.

Particionado manual

La pantalla Particionado Manual le permite crear una configuración de almacenamiento para su sistema Fedora manualmente, dándole un mayor control sobre el almacenamiento del sistema.

En la mayoría de otros instaladores tanto de Linux como de otros sistemas operativos, la partición del disco suele adoptar un enfoque de "abajo hacia arriba". En estos instaladores, primero crea dispositivos subyacentes como volúmenes físicos LVM, luego crea un diseño como LVM encima de ellos, después usted crea los sistemas de archivos encima de los volúmenes lógicos y como último paso normalmente se asigna un punto de montaje para cada volumen según sea necesario.

Anaconda usa un enfoque opuesto. Primero, usted crea los puntos de montaje separados que necesite y todo lo necesario para crearlos (creando un grupo volumen, volúmenes lógicos dentro y volúmenes físicos donde residirá el grupo volumen) se lleva a cabo automáticamente. A continuación puede ajustar la configuración automática según sus necesidades.

No permanent changes will be made to your disks during the actual partitioning process. The configuration you have selected will only be written to your system after you press the Begin installation button in Installation Summary.

Pantalla de Particionado Manual. En este punto
Figure 16. Particionado manual

When you first open the Manual Partitioning screen, the column on the left side will display all previously existing partitions on all drives which you selected as installation targers in Installation Destination. If none of the selected drives contain any existing partitions, then a message informing you that no mount points currently exist will appear.

Here, you can choose a partitioning scheme such as LVM or BTRFS and click the Click here to create them automatically to prompt the installer to create a basic partitioning layout; this layout follows the guidelines described in Recommended Partitioning Scheme. The created layout is a basic layout where partition/volume sizes are determined automatically based on the total amount of available space.

Pulse el botón + para añadir un punto de montaje. En la ventana de diálogo que se abre elija un punto de montaje como / u /home`y la capacidad deseada para el punto de montaje (como `10GB o 500MB). Advierta que el especificar el punto de montaje es obligatorio, pero no tiene que especificar la capacidad en este punto; esto es útil cuando añada un punto de montaje que desea hacer más grande que los espacios permitidos actualmente disponibles. Después, pulse Añadir punto de montaje para añadirlo a la lista usando los ajustes predeterminados, lo que significa que será creado como un volumen lógico y se creará también un nuevo grupo de volumen para él a no ser que ya exista uno.

Después, seleccione el punto de montaje recientemente creado en la lista del lado izquierdo. Se mostrarán una serie de controles en el lado derecho de la pantalla que le permite cambiar su punto de montaje, el dispositivo en el que reside físicamente, su capacidad, sistema de archivos, etc. Cuando cambie cualquier ajuste, pulse Actualizar Ajustes abajo a la derecha. Esto guardará la configuración ajustada; usted puede ahora crear otro punto de montaje o seleccionar otro de los existentes y establecer sus ajustes también.

For a description of available device and file system types, see Device, File System and RAID Types.

Para quitar un punto de montaje, selecciónelo de la lista y pulse el botón - de abajo.

The exact steps for configuring your storage depend on your specific needs and your system configuration. Procedures for creating specific layouts are described further in this chapter. Before you start, you should also review Recommended Partitioning Scheme and Advice on Partitions for a list of requirements and tips for partitioning your disks for Fedora.

Debajo de la lista de puntos de montaje existentes hay dos campos, mostrando cuánto espacio libre queda en sus dispositivos de almacenamiento y cuanto espacio total tienen.

Puse X dispositivos de almacenamiento seleccionados para ver un resumen de los dispositivos de almacenamiento actualmente seleccionados; esto puede ayudar a orientarse en esquemas de almacenamiento más complicados. Los dispositivos que se muestran aquí son los que ha seleccionado en Destino de la Instalación. Si desea añadir o borrar cualquier dispositivo de almacenamiento de su configuración, vuelva a esta pantalla y cambie la selección.

Usted puede pulsar el botón You can press the Reset Todo en la esquina inferior derecha en cualquier momento para reajustar la configuración de almacenamiento al estado en el que estaba cuando usted abrió por última vez la pantalla Particionado Manual. Esto significa que si usted modifica la configuración de almacenamiento, deja la pantalla y después vuelve, el botón Reset reseteará la configuración de vuelta al estado ya modificado, descartando solo los cambios que haya hecho recientemente, no a todos los cambios de la configuración de almacenamiento que haya hecho desde que arrancó el instalador.

Para descartar todos los cambios y también para detectar cualquier nuevo dispositivo que no haya sido detectado cuando inició el instalador (normalmente cuando engancha un nuevo dispositivo después de iniciar), pulse el botón marcado con una flecha circular en el conjunto de controles debajo de la lista de puntos de montaje en el lado izquierdo de la pantalla. En la ventana de diálogo que se abre, pulse Rescanear Discos ay espere hasta que el proceso de escaneo se complete. Después pulse OK para volver a Destino de la Instalación; todos los discos detectados, incluyendo los nuevos se visualizarán en la sección Discos Estándar Locales.

El diálogo Volver a Buscar Discos
Figure 17. Volver a Buscar Discos

Después de que termine de configurar el almacenamiento del sistema, pulse Hecho en la esquina superior izquierda para guardar la configuración y volver a la pantalla Resumen de la Instalación. En este punto, el instalador comprobará si su configuración de almacenamiento es válida. Si detecta un error se mostrará un mensaje en la parte inferior de la pantalla. Pulse el mensaje para abrir una ventana de diálogo explicando que clase de error ha sido detectado (por ejemplo, ha puesto /boot en un subvolumen Btrfs o no ha creado una partición BIOS Boot cuando su sistema requiere una).

Si se muestra este mensaje, vuelva atrás y corrija las cuestiones encontradas por el instalador; de otro modo no será capaz de continuar con la instalación. Puede presionar Hecho otra vez para volver a Resumen de la Instalación de todos modos, pero un error de configuración de almacenamiento evitará que inicie el actual proceso de instalación.

If no error message is displayed and if you made any changes since the last time you have visited this screen, a summary dialog will appear, displaying a detailed list of the changes you made. Review the list and click Accept Changes to proceed with Installation Summary, or click Cancel & Return to Custom Partitioning if you want to make any more changes.

Creando Particiones Estándar

Particiones estándar son el tipo más común de partición, con el soporte más amplio en todos los sistemas operativos. Por ejemplo, Microsoft Windows usa exclusivamente particiones físicas y no puede trabajar nativamente con LVM o Btrfs. La mayoría de las configuraciones de particionamiento de Fedora requerirán también al menos una partición estándar para el directorio /boot y posiblemente también otra partición estándar con el sistema de archivos BIOS Boot o EFI System para almacenar el cargador de arranque.

Vea Una Introducción a las Particiones de Disco para información adicional sobre los conceptos detrás de las particiones físicas.

La pantalla de Particionamiento Manual
Figure 18. Crear Partición Estándar

Siga el procedimiento de abajo para crear puntos de montaje sobre las particiones físicas:

Creando Particiones Estándar
  1. Pulse el botón + en la parte inferior de la lista que muestra los puntos de montaje existentes. Se abrirá una nueva ventana de diálogo.

  2. En la nueva ventana de diálogo, especifique un punto de montaje para el que desea crear un punto de montaje separado - por ejemplo, /. Opcionalmente, especifique un tamaño para la partición usando las unidades estándar como MB o GB (por ejemplo, 50GB). Pulse después Añadir puntos de montaje para añadir el punto de montaje y volver a la pantalla principal de particionado.

    Cuando cree una partición swap, especifique el punto de montaje como swap. Para una partición BIOS Boot, use biosboot. Para una Partición Sistema EFI, use /boot/efi.

    Para información sobre estos tipos de particiones, vea Esquema de Particionamiento Recomendado.

  3. El punto de montaje ha sido creado ahora usando los ajustes predeterminados, lo que significa que ha sido creado como un volumen lógico LVM. Seleccione el punto de montaje recién creado para configurarlo más y convertirlo en una partición física cambiando la opción Tipo de Dispositivo a Partición Estándar. Después pulse Actualizar Ajustes en la esquina inferior derecha de la pantalla.

  4. En la sección Dispositivo(s) en el lado derecho de la pantalla, puede ver que la partición ha sido asignado a uno o más discos duros. Pulse el botón Modificar para configurar en que disco será creada esta partición.

  5. En el diálogo Configurar Punto de Montaje, puede especificar en que dispositivos físicos puede residir este volumen. Puede seleccionar uno o más discos que serán usados para coger este volumen pulsando Ctrl y pulsando cada disco de la lista. Si usted selecciona múltiples discos aquí, Anaconda determinará dónde se debe crear exactamente la partición en función de como haya configurado el resto de la instalación. Si desea asegurarse de que esta partición se sitúe en un disco duro específico, seleccione solo ese disco y deseleccione los otros.

    Después de que termine de configurar la situación de la partición, pulse Guardar para volver a la pantalla principal Particionado Manual.

  6. Configure otros ajustes específicos a la partición - su Punto de Montaje, Capacidad Deseada y Sistema de Archivos. Pulse Actualizar Ajustes para aplicar cualquier cambio a la configuración.

Repita este procedimiento para cualquier partición estándar adicional que desee crear.

Creating Software RAID

Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs) are constructed from multiple storage devices that are arranged to provide increased performance and, in some configurations, greater fault tolerance. See Device, File System and RAID Types a description of different kinds of RAIDs.

A RAID device is created in one step, and disks are added or removed as necessary. One RAID partition per physical disk is allowed for each device, so the number of disks available to the installation program determines which levels of RAID device are available to you. For example, if your system has two hard drives, the installation program will not allow you to create a RAID10 device, which requires 4 separate partitions.

This section only explains how to create software RAID with standard (physical) partitions. However, you can also configure LVM volume groups and Btrfs volumes to use RAID and place their logical volumes or Btrfs subvolumes on top of this RAID array. See Creating a Logical Volume Managament (LVM) Layout and Creating a Btrfs Layout for instructions on creating RAID in LVM and Btrfs.

La pantalla de Particionamiento Manual
Figure 19. Create Software RAID

RAID configuration options are only visible if you have selected two or more disks for installation. At least two disks are required to create a RAID device, and some RAID layouts will require more. Requirements for different types of RAID are described in Device, File System and RAID Types.

Follow the procedure below to create software RAID:

Creating Software RAID
  1. Pulse el botón + en la parte inferior de la lista que muestra los puntos de montaje existentes. Se abrirá una nueva ventana de diálogo.

  2. In the new dialog window, specify a mount point for which you want to create a separate software RAID partition - for example, /. Optionally, specify a size for the new partition using standard units such as MB or GB (for example, 50GB). Then, click Add mount point to add the mount point and return to the main partitioning screen.

    When creating a mount point for swap on software RAID, specify the mount point as swap.

  3. The mount point has now been created using the default settings, which means it has been created as an LVM logical volume. Select the newly created mount point in the left pane to configure it further, and convert it to a software RAID partition by changing the Device Type option to RAID.

  4. Choose a RAID type from the RAID Level drop-down menu. Available RAID types and their requirements are described in Device, File System and RAID Types.

  5. In the Device(s) section on the right side of the screen, you can see that the partition has been assigned to several physical disks. Click the Modify button to configure on which drives this partition will be created.

  6. In the Configure Mount Point dialog, you can specify which physical devices (disks) this partition may reside on. You can select one or more disks which will be used to hold this partition by holding down Ctrl and clicking each disk in the list. If you want to make sure that this partition is placed on a specific set of hard drives, select only those drives and unselect all others.

    Después de que termine de configurar la situación de la partición, pulse Guardar para volver a la pantalla principal Particionado Manual.

  7. Configure otros ajustes específicos a la partición - su Punto de Montaje, Capacidad Deseada y Sistema de Archivos. Pulse Actualizar Ajustes para aplicar cualquier cambio a la configuración.

Repeat this procedure for any additional standard partitions with software RAID you want to create.

Creating a Logical Volume Managament (LVM) Layout

Gestión de Volumen Lógico (LVM) presenta una sencilla visión lógica del espacio de almacenamiento físico subyacente, como discos duros o LUNs. Las particiones sobre el almacenamiento físico son representadas como volúmenes físicos que se pueden agrupar juntos en grupos de volumen. Cada volumen puede ser dividido en múltiples volúmenes lógicos, cada uno de los cuales es análogo a una partición estándar de disco. Por lo tanto, Los volúmenes lógicos LVM funcionan como particiones que se pueden expandir por múltiples discos físicos.

See Understanding LVM for additional information about the concepts behind Logical Volume Management.

Algunos tipos de partición - notablemente el directorio /boot y las particiones BIOS Boot y EFI - no se pueden situar en volúmenes lógicos. Use volúmenes físicos estándar para ellas. Vea Esquema de Partición Recomendado para más información.

La pantalla de Particionamiento Manual
Figure 20. Crear un Volumen Lógico LVM

Siga el procedimiento de abajo para crear volúmenes lógicos LVM y grupos de volumen.

Creando Volúmenes Lógicos LVM y Grupos
  1. Pulse el botón + en la parte inferior de la lista que muestra los puntos de montaje existentes. Se abrirá una nueva ventana de diálogo.

  2. En la nueva ventana de diálogo, especifique un punto de montaje para el que desea crear un volumen lógico separado - por ejemplo, /. Opcionalmente, especifique un tamaño para el volumen usando las unidades estándar como MB o GB (por ejemplo, 50GB). Pulse después Añadir puntos de montaje para añadir el volumen y volver a la pantalla principal de particionado.

    Cuando cree un punto de montaje para swap sobre LVM, especifique el punto de montaje como swap.

  3. El punto de montaje ha sido creado ahora usando los ajustes predeterminados, lo que significa que se ha creado como volumen lógico LVM y se ha creado un grupo volumen para contenerlo. Selecciones el punto de montaje recientemente creado en el panel de la izquierda para configurarlo posteriormente. Si desea utilizar el aprovisionamiento ligero para este volumen, cambie los opción Tipo de Dispositivo a Aprovisionamiento Ligero LVM.

  4. In the Volume Group menu, you can see that the volume has been assigned to an automatically created volume group, which is named after the Fedora variant you are installing (for example, fedora-server. Click the Modify button under the drop-down menu to access the volume group settings.

  5. In the Configure Volume Group dialog, you can change the volume group’s name, its RAID level (see Device, File System and RAID Types for information about available RAID types), and you can also specify which physical devices (disks) this volume group should reside on. You can select one or more disks which will be used to hold this volume group by holding down Ctrl and clicking each disk in the list.

    If you select a redundant RAID type (such as RAID1 (Redundancy)), the volume group will take up twice its actual size on your disks. A 5 GB volume group with RAID1 will take up 10 GB of space.

    You can also make sure that the volume group is encrypted by selecting the Encrypt option; this will enable LUKS encryption for the entire volume group. See the Fedora Security Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/, for information about LUKS disk encryption.

    Additionally, you can set a fixed size for the volume group by selecting the Fixed option from the Size policy menu and entering a size for the volume group.

    After you finish configuring the volume group settings, click Save to return to the main Manual Partitioning screen.

    The configuration dialog does not allow you to specify the size of the volume group’s physical extents. The size will always be set to the default value of 4 MiB. If you want to create a volume group with different physical extents, create it manually by switching to an interactive shell and using the vgcreate command, or use a Kickstart file with the volgroup --pesize=size command.

  6. If you need to create more than one volume group, open the Volume Group drop-down menu and select the Create a new volume group option. A new dialog window will open, identical to the one described in the previous step. Again, select a name, storage devices, encryption settings, RAID level and size policy for the new group, and click Save. The new volume group will then become available in the Volume Group drop-down menu; you can then go through your existing mount points and change this setting to assign them to a different volume group.

  7. Configure other settings specific to the logical volume - its Mount Point, Desired Capacity, File System, and Name. Press Update Settings to apply any changes to the configuration.

Repeat this procedure for any additional logical volumes you want to create. Note that when creating additional LVM logical volumes, a new volume group is not automatically created each time; instead, any additional volumes are assigned to an existing group.

For each mount point you create, review its settings and make sure that it is assigned to the correct group, that it has sufficient capacity, and that it has a descriptive name so you can identify the volume later if you need to.

Creando un Diseño Btrfs

Btrfs is a type of file system, but it has several features characteristic of a storage device. It is designed to make the file system tolerant of errors, and to facilitate the detection and repair of errors when they occur. It uses checksums to ensure the validity of data and metadata, and maintains snapshots of the file system that can be used for backup or repair.

Creating a Btrfs layout is somewhat similar to LVM (described in Creating a Logical Volume Managament (LVM) Layout) with slightly different terminology. A Btrfs volume is the equivalent of an LVM volume group, and a Btrfs subvolume is similar to a LVM logical volume. An important difference to note is how Anaconda reports sizes for separate mount points: For LVM, the exact size of each logical volume is shown next to each mount point in the left pane, while with Btrfs, the total size of the entire volume is shown next to each subvolume.

Some partition types - notably the /boot and /usr directories and the BIOS Boot and EFI partitions - can not be placed on Btrfs subvolumes. Use standard physical volumes for them (or an LVM logical volume for /usr). See Recommended Partitioning Scheme for more information.

La pantalla de Particionamiento Manual
Figure 21. Create Btrfs Subvolume

Follow the procedure below to create Btrfs volumes and subvolumes:

Creating Btrfs Subvolumes and Volumes
  1. Pulse el botón + en la parte inferior de la lista que muestra los puntos de montaje existentes. Se abrirá una nueva ventana de diálogo.

  2. En la nueva ventana de diálogo, especifique un punto de montaje para el que desea crear un volumen lógico separado - por ejemplo, /. Opcionalmente, especifique un tamaño para el volumen usando las unidades estándar como MB o GB (por ejemplo, 50GB). Pulse después Añadir puntos de montaje para añadir el volumen y volver a la pantalla principal de particionado.

    When creating a mount point for swap on Btrfs, specify the mount point as swap.

  3. The mount point has now been created using the default settings, which means it has been created as an LVM logical volume. Select the newly created mount point in the left pane to configure it further, and convert it to a Btrfs subvolume by changing the Device Type option to Btrfs. Then, click Update Settings in the bottom right corner of the screen.

  4. In the Volume menu, you can see that the subvolume has been assigned to an automatically created volume, which is named after the Fedora variant you are installing (for example, fedora-server00. Click the Modify button under the drop-down menu to access the volume settings.

  5. In the Configure Volume dialog, you can change the volume’s name, its RAID level (see Device, File System and RAID Types for information about available RAID types), and you can also specify which physical devices (disks) this volume should reside on. You can select one or more disks which will be used to hold this volume by holding down Ctrl and clicking each disk in the list.

    If you select a redundant RAID type (such as RAID1 (Redundancy)), the volume will take up twice its actual size on your disks. A 5 GB volume with RAID1 will take up 10 GB of space.

    You can also make sure that the volume is encrypted by selecting the Encrypt option; this will enable LUKS encryption for the entire volume. See the Fedora Security Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/, for information about LUKS disk encryption.

    Additionally, you can set a fixed size for the volume by selecting the Fixed option from the Size policy menu and entering a size for the volume group.

    After you finish configuring the Btrfs volume settings, click Save to return to the main Manual Partitioning screen.

  6. If you need to create more than one Btrfs volume, open the Volume drop-down menu and select the Create a new volume group option. A new dialog window will open, identical to the one described in the previous step. Again, select a name, storage devices, encryption settings, RAID level and size policy for the new volume, and click Save. The new volume will then become available in the Volume Group drop-down menu; you can then go through your existing mount points and change this setting to assign them to a different volume.

  7. Configure other settings specific to the subvolume - its Mount Point, Desired Capacity, File System, and Name. Press Update Settings to apply any changes to the configuration.

Repeat this procedure for any additional Btrfs subvolumes you want to create. Note that when creating additional subvolumes, a new volume is not automatically created each time; instead, any additional subvolumes are assigned to an existing volume.

For each mount point you create, review its settings and make sure that it is assigned to the correct volume, that it has sufficient capacity, and that it has a descriptive name so you can identify the subvolume later if you need to.

Device, File System and RAID Types

Fedora supports multiple types of devices and file systems. The lists below offer a short description of each available device, file system and RAID type and notes on their usage.

To select a device type or a file system of a partition or a logical volume, select it in the list in Manual Partitioning and select a Device Type and a File System from their respective drop-down menus on the right side of the screen. Then, click Update Settings and repeat this process for all mount points you want to modify.

To configure software RAID, make sure that you have enough physical hard drives selected as installation targets (the number of separate drives required for each type of RAID is noted in its description). Then, choose a RAID level when creating or modifying a Btrfs volume or LVM volume group, or select Software RAID as the device type to create software RAID with standard partitions. For detailed instructions, see Creating a Btrfs Layout, Creating a Logical Volume Managament (LVM) Layout, and Creating Software RAID as needed.

Device Types
  • Standard Partition - A standard partition can contain a file system or swap space. Standard partitions are most commonly used for /boot and the BIOS Boot and EFI System partitions. LVM logical volumes or Btrfs subvolumes are recommended for most other uses. See An Introduction to Disk Partitions for additional information about the concepts behind physical partitions.

  • LVM - Choosing LVM as the Device Type creates an LVM logical volume and a volume group to contain it (unless one already exists, in which case the new volume is assigned to the existing group). LVM can improve performance when using physical disks and allows you to use multiple disks for a single mount point. For information on how to create a logical volume, see Creating a Logical Volume Managament (LVM) Layout. Also see Understanding LVM for some additional information about LVM in general.

  • LVM Thin Provisioning - Using thin provisioning, you can manage a storage pool of free space, known as a thin pool, which can be allocated to an arbitrary number of devices when needed by applications. The thin pool can be expanded dynamically when needed for cost-effective allocation of storage space.

  • RAID - Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a software RAID device. One RAID partition is assigned to each disk on the system. See Creating Software RAID for instructions on creating software RAID.

  • BTRFS - Btrfs is a file system with several device-like features. It is capable of addressing and managing more files, larger files, and larger volumes than the ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems. See Creating a Btrfs Layout for more information about creating Btrfs volumes.

File Systems
  • ext4 - The ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number of improvements. These include support for larger file systems and larger files, faster and more efficient allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of subdirectories within a directory, faster file system checking, and more robust journaling. Ext4 is the default and recommended file system used by Fedora Workstation and Cloud. The maximum supported size of a single ext4 file system is 50 TB.

  • ext3 - The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage - journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a crash, as there is no need to check the file system for metadata consistency by running the fsck utility every time a crash occurs.

  • ext2 - An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types, including regular files, directories, or symbolic links. It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.

  • swap - Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. A swap partition should always be created; see Recommended Partitioning Scheme for details such as the recommended size.

  • xfs - XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports file systems up to 16 exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8 exabytes (approximately 8 million terabytes), and directory structures containing tens of millions of entries. XFS also supports metadata journaling, which facilitates quicker crash recovery. The maximum supported size of a single XFS file system is 500 TB. Starting with Fedora 22, XFS is the default and recommended file system on Fedora Server.

    Note that the size of an XFS file system can not currently be reduced without destroying and recreating the file system. If you expect that you will need to adjust the sizes of your file systems often, using XFS is not recommended, as it makes administration substantially more time-consuming.

  • vfat - The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows long file names on the FAT file system.

  • BIOS Boot - A very small partition required for booting from a device with a GUID partition table (GPT) on BIOS systems and UEFI systems in BIOS compatibility mode. See Recommended Partitioning Scheme for details.

  • EFI System Partition - A small partition required for booting a device with a GUID partition table (GPT) on a UEFI system. See Recommended Partitioning Scheme for details.

Software RAID Types
  • RAID0 (Performance) - Distributes data across multiple disks. Level 0 RAID offers increased performance over standard partitions and can be used to pool the storage of multiple disks into one large virtual device. Note that Level 0 RAIDs offer no redundancy and that the failure of one device in the array destroys data in the entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two disks.

  • RAID1 (Redundancy) - Mirrors all data from one partition onto one or more other disks. Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy. RAID 1 requires at least two disks.

  • RAID4 (Error Checking) - Distributes data across multiple disks and uses one disk in the array to store parity information which safeguards the array in case any disk within the array fails. Because all parity information is stored on one disk, access to this disk creates a "bottleneck" in the array’s performance. Level 4 RAID requires at least three disks.

  • RAID5 (Distributed Error Checking) - Distributes data and parity information across multiple disks. Level 5 RAIDs therefore offer the performance advantages of distributing data across multiple disks, but do not share the performance bottleneck of level 4 RAIDs because the parity information is also distributed through the array. RAID 5 requires at least three disks.

  • RAID6 (Redundant Error Checking) - Level 6 RAIDs are similar to level 5 RAIDs, but instead of storing only one set of parity data, they store two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four disks.

  • RAID10 (Performance, Redundancy) - Level 10 RAIDs are nested RAIDs or hybrid RAIDs. They are constructed by distributing data over mirrored sets of disks. For example, a level 10 RAID array constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two mirrored pairs of striped partitions. RAID 10 requires at least four disks.

En la mayoría de los casos se deberían crear siempre al menos los siguientes puntos de montaje:

/boot - 500 MB

This partition contains the operating system kernel, which allows Fedora to boot. It also contains other files used during the bootstrap process. Due to the limitations of most firmware, creating a separate, small standard partition for this directory is recommended. In most scenarios, a 500 MB /boot partition is adequate.

Si su sistema tiene una controladora hardware RAID, esté atento a que algunos tipos de BIOS no soportan el arranque desde ellas. En este caso la partición /boot debe ser creada sobre una partición fuera de la formación RAID, como por ejemplo un disco duro separado.

Also note that the /boot directory can not be placed on a LVM logical volume or a Btrfs subvolume. Use a standard partition.

/ (root) - 10 GB

Esta es donde se localiza el directorio raíz. El directorio raíz es el nivel más alto de la estructura de directorios. De modo predeterminado, todos los archivos se escriben en esta partición a menos que se monte una partición diferente en la ruta en la que se escribe (por ejemplo, /boot or /home). Si usted sigue el esquema recomendado en esta sección, esta será la partición donde serán instalados la mayoría de los paquetes de software.

For a minimal installation, a 5 GB root partition will be sufficient. However, for most common installations which include extra packages and a graphical user interface, the root partition should be at least 10 GB; with 20 GB being sufficient for most common use cases.

The / mount point is the top of the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy, and is referred to as the root file system, or root. The /root directory, sometimes pronounced "slash-root", is the home directory for the root user.

/home - at least 10 GB

To store user data separately from system data, create a dedicated mount point for the /home directory. This partition should be sized based on the amount of data that will be stored locally, number of users, and so on. This will allow you to upgrade or reinstall Fedora without erasing user data files. During the installation, a separate /home partition will be created if there are 50 GB or more free space for your Fedora installation.

When using Fedora as a workstation for normal use with a graphical environment, this mount point should have the most disk space assigned to it, as it will likely hold the most data (user settings, images, videos, etc).

swap - based on your system parameters

Swap partitions support virtual memory; data is written to them when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. This partition’s size is a function of system memory workload, not total system memory, and therefore is not equal to the total system memory size. Therefore, it is important to analyze what applications a system will be running and the load those applications will serve in order to determine the system memory workload. Application providers and developers should be able to provide some guidance.

When the system runs out of swap space, the kernel terminates processes as the system RAM memory is exhausted. Configuring too much swap space results in storage devices being allocated but idle and is a poor use of resources. Too much swap space can also hide memory leaks. The maximum size for a swap partition and other additional information can be found in the mkswap(8) man page.

The table below provides the recommended size of a swap partition depending on the amount of RAM in your system and whether you want sufficient memory for your system to hibernate. If you let the installation program partition your system automatically, the swap partition size will be established using these guidelines. Automatic partitioning setup assumes hibernation is not in use, and the maximum size of the swap partition is limited to 10% of the total size of the hard drive. If you want to set up enough swap space to allow for hibernation, or if you want to set the swap partition size to more than 10% of the system’s storage space, you must edit the partitioning layout manually.

Table 2. Recommended System Swap Space
Amount of RAM in the system Recommended swap space Recommended swap space if allowing for hibernation

less than 2 GB

2 times the amount of RAM

3 times the amount of RAM

2 GB - 8 GB

Equal to the amount of RAM

2 times the amount of RAM

8 GB - 64 GB

0.5 times the amount of RAM

1.5 times the amount of RAM

more than 64 GB

workload dependent

hibernation not recommended

At the border between each range listed above (for example, a system with 2 GB, 8 GB, or 64 GB of system RAM), discretion can be exercised with regard to chosen swap space and hibernation support. If your system resources allow for it, increasing the swap space may lead to better performance.

Distributing swap space over multiple storage devices - particularly on systems with fast drives, controllers and interfaces - also improves swap space performance.

BIOS Boot (1 MB) or EFI System Partition (200 MB)

The GRUB2 boot loader can be installed either in the Master Boot Record (MBR) or the GUID Partition Table (GPT) of the boot device. In order to determine which of these methods to use, the installation program considers the following variations:

Systems with BIOS firmware and UEFI systems in BIOS compatibility mode

If the disk is already formatted, the partitioning scheme is retained. If the disk is not formatted, or you have erased all existing partitions from the disk, the installer will choose the following:

  • MBR if the size of the disk is less than 2 TB (terabytes)

  • GPT if the size of the disk is more than 2 TB

    You can force the installer to use GPT on disks smaller than 2 TB by using the inst.gpt boot option as described in Boot Options. However, the opposite is not possible - you can not use MBR on disks larger than 2 TB.

    You need to create a BIOS Boot partition with a size of 1 MB to install on a system with BIOS firmware if the disk containing the boot loader uses GPT. If the disk uses a MBR, no special partition is necessary on a BIOS system.

Systems with UEFI firmware

Only GPT is allowed on UEFI systems. In order to install on a formatted disk with a MBR, it must be reformated and relabeled. All data currently on the disk will be lost.

UEFI-based systems require an EFI System Partition at least 50 MB in size (recommended size is 200 MB), regardless of the partitioning scheme.

If your system requires either a BIOS Boot partition or an EFI System Partition based on the requirements detailed above, this partition must be created as a standard physical partition. It can not reside on an LVM volume or a Btrfs subvolume.

Also note that if your system does not require any of these partitions, they will not be shown in the File System menu in mount point options.

Many systems have more partitions than the minimum listed above. Choose partitions based on your particular needs. See Advice on Partitions for additional information and advice.

Only assign storage capacity to those partitions you require immediately. You may allocate free space at any time, to meet needs as they occur.

If you are not sure how best to configure the partitions for your computer, accept the automatic default partition layout provided by the installation program as described in Installation Destination.

Advice on Partitions

There is no best way to partition every system; the optimal setup depends on how you plan to use the system being installed. However, the following tips may help you find the optimal layout for your needs:

  • Consider encrypting any partitions and volumes which might contain sensitive data. Encryption prevents unauthorized people from accessing the data on the partitions, even if they have access to the physical storage device. In most cases, you should at least encrypt the /home partition, which contains user data.

  • In some cases, creating separate mount points for directories other than /, /boot and /home may be useful; for example, on a server running a MySQL database, having a separate mount point for /var/lib/mysql will allow you to preserve the database during a reinstallation without having to restore it from backup afterwards. However, having unnecessary separate mount points will make storage administration more difficult.

  • Some special restrictions apply to certain directories with regards on which partitioning layouts can they be placed. Notably, the /boot directory must always be on a physical partition (not on an LVM volume or a Btrfs subvolume), and /usr can not be on a Btrfs subvolume.

  • If you are new to Linux, consider reviewing the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard at https://refspecs.linuxfoundation.org/FHS_2.3/fhs-2.3.html for information about various system directories and their contents.

  • Each kernel installed on your system requires approximately 20 MB on the /boot partition. The default partition size of 500 MB for /boot should suffice for most common uses; increase the size of this partition if you plan to keep many kernels installed at the same time.

  • The /var directory holds content for a number of applications, including the Apache web server, and is used by the DNF package manager to temporarily store downloaded package updates. Make sure that the partition or volume containing /var has at least 3 GB.

  • The contents of the /var directory usually change very often. This may cause problems with older solid state drives (SSDs), as they can handle a lower number of read/write cycles before becoming unusable. If your system root is on an SSD, consider creating a separate mount point for /var on a classic (platter) HDD.

  • The /usr directory holds the majority of software on a typical Fedora installation. The partition or volume containing this directory should therefore be at least 5 GB for minimal installations, and at least 10 GB for installations with a graphical environment.

  • If /usr or /var is partitioned separately from the rest of the root volume, the boot process becomes much more complex because these directories contain boot-critical components. In some situations, such as when these directories are placed on an iSCSI drive or an FCoE location, the system may either be unable to boot, or it may hang with a Device is busy error when powering off or rebooting.

    This limitation only applies to /usr or /var, not to directories below them. For example, a separate partition for /var/www will work without issues.

  • Consider leaving a portion of the space in an LVM volume group unallocated. This unallocated space gives you flexibility if your space requirements change but you do not wish to remove data from other volumes. You can also select the Thin provisioning device type for the partition to have the unused space handled automatically by the volume.

  • The size of an XFS file system can not be reduced - if you need to make a partition or volume with this file system smaller, you must back up your data, destroy the file system, and create a new, smaller one in its place. Therefore, if you expect needing to manipulate your partitioning layout later, you should use the ext4 file system instead.

  • Use Logical Volume Management (LVM) if you anticipate expanding your storage by adding more hard drives after the installation. With LVM, you can create physical volumes on the new drives, and then assign them to any volume group and logical volume as you see fit - for example, you can easily expand your system’s /home (or any other directory residing on a logical volume).

  • Creating a BIOS Boot partition or an EFI System Partition may be necessary, depending on your system’s firmware, boot drive size, and boot drive disk label. See Recommended Partitioning Scheme for information about these partitions. Note that the graphical installer will not let you create a BIOS Boot or EFI System Partition if your system does not require one - in that case, they will be hidden from the menu.

  • If you need to make any changes to your storage configuration after the installation, Fedora repositories offer several different tools which can help you do this. If you prefer a command line tool, try system-storage-manager.

Kdump

Esta pantalla está deshabilitada de manera predeterminada. Para habilitarla durante la instalación, debe usar la opción inst.kdump_addon=on en el menú de inicio. Vea detalles en Opciones Avanzadas de Instalación e instrucciones sobre el uso de las opciones personalizadas de arranque en El Menú de Inicio.

Use esta pantalla para seleccionar si Kdump será o no activado en el sistema instalado y cuanta memoria será reservada si se habilita.

La pantalla de configuración Kdump
Figure 22. Kdump

Kdump is a kernel crash dumping mechanism which, in the event of a system crash, captures the contents of the system memory at the moment of failure. This captured memory can then be analyzed to find the cause of the crash. If Kdump is enabled, it must have a small portion of the system’s memory (RAM) reserved to itself. This reserved memory will not be accessible to the main kernel.

To enable Kdump on the installed system, check Enabled. Then, select either Automatic or Manual memory reservation settings, and if you selected Manual, enter the amount of memory to be reserved in megabytes into the Memory to be reserved field.

The amount of memory which you should reserve is determined based on your system’s architecture (AMD64 and Intel 64 will have different requirements than IBM Power, for example) as well as the total amount of system memory. In most cases, automatic reservation will be satisfactory. If you insist on manual settings, see the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Kernel Crash Dump Guide for guidelines. This document also contains more in-depth information about how Kdump works, how to configure additional settings, and how to analyze a saved crash dump.

The Usable System Memory readout below the reservation input field shows how much memory will be accessible to your main system once your selected amount of RAM is reserved.

Additional settings, such as the location where kernel crash dumps will be saved, can only be configured after the installation using either the system-config-kdump graphical interface, or manually in the /etc/kdump.conf configuration file.

After configuring Kdump settings, click Done in the top left corner to return to Installation Summary.

Network & Hostname

The Network & Hostname screen is used to configure network interfaces. Options selected here will be available both during the installation (if needed for tasks such as downloading packages from a remote location) and on the installed system.

Network configuration is an expansive topic and many of the options available during the installation are beyond the scope of this document. For detailed information about networking, including both theoretical topics and specific instructions and examples, see the Fedora Networking Guide, available at https://docs.fedoraproject.org/.

The Network & Hostname screen. In the left pane
Figure 23. Network & Hostname

Locally accessible interfaces are automatically detected by the installation program and cannot be manually added or deleted. All detected interfaces are listed on the left side of the screen. Click an interface in the list to display its current configuration (such as IP and DNS address); the details are displayed on the right side of the screen.

Below the list of interfaces are two buttons. Use the + button to add a virtual network interface (Team, Bond or VLAN) as described in Adding a Virtual Network Interface. To remove a previously created virtual interface, select it in the list and click the - button.

To change settings such as IP addresses, DNS servers, or routing configuration for an existing interface (both virtual and physical), select the interface in the left pane and click Configure in the bottom right corner of the screen. Available settings are described in Editing Network Interface Configuration.

Use the ON/OFF switch in the top right corner to enable or disable the currently selected interface.

Below the list of connections, enter a host name for this computer in the Hostname input field. The host name can be either a fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) in the format hostname.domainname, or a short host name with no domain name. Many networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service that automatically supplies connected systems with a domain name; to allow the DHCP service to assign the domain name to this machine, only specify the short host name.

Añadiendo una Interfaz Virtual de Red

Para añadir una interfaz de red virtual, pulse el botón + en la parte inferior de la lista de interfaces. Se abrirá una nueva ventana, solicitando que seleccione uno de los tres tipos disponibles de interfaces virtuales:

  • Vínculo - Vinculando NIC (Controlador de Interfaz de Red), un método para unir múltiples interfaces de red físicos junto en un único canal vinculado.

  • Equipo - Equipando NIC, una nueva implementación para agregar enlaces, diseñado para suministrar un pequeño kernel controlador para implementar un manejo más rápido de los flujos de paquetes y diversas aplicaciones para hacer todo lo demás en el espacio de usuario.

  • Vlan (Virtual LAN) - Un método para crear múltiples dominios de difusión distintos que están mutuamente aislados.

Seleccione el tipo de interfaz que desea añadir y pulse Añadir. Se abrirá otra ventana de diálogo, permitiendo editar cualquiera de los ajustes disponibles para el tipo de interfaz que haya elegido. Para información sobre los ajustes disponibles, vea las respectivas secciones de Fedora Guía de Red , disponible en http://docs.fedoraproject.org/. Hay documentación básica también disponible en Editando la Configuración de la Interfaz de Red.

Para acceder al diálogo de ajustes después de haberlo cerrado, seleccione el mismo interfaz en la lista de interfaces configurados y pulse Configurar en la esquina inferior derecha de la pantalla. Para quitar una interfaz virtual, selecciónelo en la lista y pulse el botón - de abajo.

Editando la Configuración del Interfaz de Red

Esta sección sólo detalla los ajustes más importantes para una conexión cableada típica usada durante la instalación. Muchas de las opciones disponibles no tienen que ser cambiadas en la mayoría de los escenarios de instalación y no se transfieren al sistema instalado. La configuración de otro tipo de redes es en general similar, aunque parámetros específicos de configuración pueden ser diferentes. Para aprender más sobre la configuración de la red después de la instalación vea la Fedora Guía de Red, disponible en https://docs.fedoraproject.org/.

Para configurar una conexión de red manualmente, seleccione esa conexión en la lista del lado izquierdo de la pantalla y pulse el botón Configurar. Aparecerá un diálogo que le permite configurar la conexión seleccionada. Las opciones de configuración presentadas dependen del tipo de conexión - las opciones disponibles pueden ser levemente diferentes dependiendo de si es una interfaz física (controlador de interfaz para red cableada o inalámbrica) o una interfaz virtual (Bond, Team o Vlan) que usted ha configurado previamente en Añadiendo una Interfaz de Red Virtual.. Una descripción total de todos los ajustes de configuración para todos los tipos de conexión está fuera del alcance de este documento; vea detalles en la Guía de Red .

Las opciones más comunes y útiles en el diálogo de configuración son:

Habilitar o deshabilitar la conexión de forma predeterminada

En la pestaña General del diálogo de configuración, puede seleccionar o deseleccionar la casilla de verificación Conectar automáticamente a este red cuando esté disponible para permitir o no que esta conexión se conecte de forma predeterminada. Cuando está habilitada para una conexión cableada, esto significa que el sistema se conectará normalmente durante el arranque (a no ser que desconecte el cable de red); sobre una conexión inalámbrica, significa que la interfaz intentará conectar a cualquiera de las redes inalámbricas conocidos en el rango.

Adicionalmente, usted puede permitir o no que todos los usuarios en el sistema se conecten a esta red usando la opción Todos los usuarios pueden conectarse a esta red. Si deshabilita esta opción, sólo root será capaz de conectarse a este red.

No es posible que permita a un usuarios específico distinto de root que use esta interfaz, puesto que no hay otros usuarios creados en este punto durante la instalación. Si necesita una conexión para un usuario diferente, debe configurarlo después de la instalación.

Configurar los ajustes de IPv4 o IPv6 estática

De modo predeterminado, tanto IPv4 como IPv6 están establecidos en configuración automática dependiendo de la configuración de red actual. Esto significa que las direcciones como la dirección IP local, la dirección DNS y otros ajustes serán detectados automáticamente cada ve que la interfaz se conecte a la red. En muchos casos esto es suficiente, pero usted puede suministrar una configuración estática en los Ajustes IPv4 y Ajustes IPv6, respectivamente.

Para establecer una configuración de red estática, vaya a uno de las pestañas de ajustes y seleccione un método distinto del Automático (por ejemplo, Manual) desde el menú desplegable Método. Esto habilitará el campo Dirección abajo.

En la pestaña Ajustes IPv6 también puede estableces el método a Ignorar para deshabilitar IPv6 en esta interfaz.

Después, pulse Añadir en el lado derecho y añada un conjunto de ajustes: Dirección, Máscara de Red (para IPv4), Prefijo (para IPv6) y Pasarela.

El campo Servidores DNS acepta uno o más direcciones IP de servidores DNS - por ejemplo, 10.0.0.1,10.0.0.8.

+ La opción final en ambas pestañas es Requiere direccionamiento IPvX para que se complete esta conexión. Seleccione esta opción en la pestaña IPv4 para sólo permitir esta conexión si IPv4 tiene éxito; el mismo principio se aplica a este ajuste en la pestaña IPv6. Si esta opción permanece deshabilitada tanto para IPv4 como para IPv6, la interfaz podrá conectarse si la configuración se realiza correctamente en cualquiera de los protocolos IP.

Configurar rutas

En las pestañas Ajustes IPv4 y Ajustes IPv6, pulse el botón Rutas en la esquina inferior derecha para configurar los ajustes de enrutamiento para un protocolo IP específico sobre una interfaz. Se abrirá un cuadro de diálogo, permitiéndole Añadir una ruta específica.

Si usted confía en al menos una ruta estática, puede deshabilitar todas las rutas no configuradas específicamente aquí habilitando Ignorar automáticamente las rutas obtenidas.

Seleccione Usar esta conexión sólo para recursos en esta red para evitar que esta conexión llegue a ser la ruta predeterminada. Esta opción se puede seleccionar incluso si no configuró ninguna ruta estática. Habilitar esta opción significa que esta ruta solo se utilizará cuando sea necesario para acceder a ciertos recursos, como páginas de intranet que requieren una conexión local o VPN. Si es posible, se utilizará otra ruta (predeterminada) para los recursos disponibles públicamente. Tenga en cuenta que, a diferencia de las rutas adicionales configuradas en este cuadro de diálogo, esta configuración se transferirá al sistema instalado. También tenga en cuenta que esta opción solo es útil cuando se configura más de una interfaz.

When you finish configuring the interface’s routing settings, click OK to return to the configuration dialog.

Once you finish configuring the interface, click Save in the configuration window’s bottom right corner to save your settings and return to Network & Hostname.

Configuración y Progreso de la Instalación

La pantalla Configuración se muestra después de que usted termine de configurar todos los hitos requeridos en Resumen de la Instalación y pulse el botón Empezar Instalación. Después de este punto, el proceso de instalación empieza y los cambios de hacen en los discos seleccionados. No es posible volver atrás al Resumen de la Instalación y cambiar cualquier ajuste hecho allí; si necesita hacerlo, debe esperar a que el proceso de instalación finalice; reinicie el sistema, acceda y cambie los ajustes sobre el sistema instalado.

La pantalla Configuración. Dos pantallas más en la parte superior requieren configuración. El progreso de la instalación se muestra en el fondo.
Figure 24. Configuración y Progreso de la Instalación

En la parte superior de la pantalla están disponibles dos opciones adicionales, permitiendo configurar ajustes de autenticación - la contraseña de root`y una cuenta de usuario adicional. La configuración de la contraseña de `root es requerida para finalizar la instalación; la creación de una cuenta de usuario se puede saltar. Si lo hace, se le pedirá que cree una cuenta de usuario no root después de que la instalación finalice y su sistema se reinicie.

Al fondo de la pantalla se muestra una barra de progreso y un mensaje informando del progreso actual de la instalación. Cuando la instalación termina y se ha establecido la contraseña de root, puede pulsar el botón Terminar configuración para reiniciar su sistema y acceder al sistema Fedora recién instalado.

Antes de finalizar la instalación y reiniciar, o bien quite el medio (CD, DVD o dispositivo USB) que ha usado para iniciar la instalación o asegure que su sistema intenta arrancar desde el disco duro antes que desde el medio removible. De otra manera, su ordenador iniciará otra vez el instalador en lugar del sistema instalado.

Contraseña del usuario root

La pantalla Contraseña de Root se usa para configurar la contraseña de root para su sistema. Esta contraseña será usada para acceder como cuenta de administrador (también conocido como superusuario), que se usa para tareas de administración del sistema como la instalación y actualización de paquetes de software y los cambios de configuración en todo el sistema como los ajustes de red y cortafuegos, las opciones de almacenamiento y la adicción o modificación usuarios, grupos y permisos de archivos.

Durante la instalación siempre se creará la cuente root. Sin embargo, siempre se debería crear también una cuenta de usuario normal en Crear Usuario y usar esta cuenta para acceder al sistema. Utilizar solo la cuenta de administrador cuando necesite llevar a cabo tareas que requieran acceso de administrador.

La cuenta root tiene control completo sobre el sistema. Si un usuario no autorizado obtiene acceso a esta cuenta, puede acceder o borrar todos los archivos personales de los usuarios If an unauthorized person gains access to this account, they can access or delete all users' personal files o de lo contrario explotar la máquina para sus propios nefastos propósitos. Vea la Fedora Guía de Seguridad, disponible en https://docs.fedoraproject.org/, para documentación detallada sobre la seguridad de la cuenta y directrices para elegir una contraseña fuerte.

Pantalla Contraseña de Root. Use los campos de entrada texto para suministrar su contraseña de root.
Figure 25. Contraseña del usuario root

Una vez que haya elegido una contraseña fuerte, introducirla en el campo Contraseña de Root. Los caracteres que escriba se mostrarán como puntos por seguridad. Después, teclee la misma contraseña en el campo Confirmar para asegurar que la ha introducido correctamente. Ambas contraseñas tecleadas debe ser la misma.

Según introduzca la contraseña será evaluada y el instalador determinará su fortaleza. Si el instalador considera que la contraseña es débil aparecerá un mensaje en la parte inferior de la pantalla, explicando que aspecto de la contraseña que ha elegido es considerado insuficiente. Por ejemplo:

La contraseña que ha suministrado es débil: La contraseña tiene menos de 5 caracteres.

Si aparece un mensaje similar al de arriba, es altamente recomendable que elija una contraseña diferente, más fuerte.

Una vez que ha configurado la contraseña de superusuario, pulse Hecho en la esquina superior izquierda para volver a Configuración y Progreso de la Instalación. Si selecciona una contraseña débil, debe apretar el botón dos veces.

Crear usuario|

La pantalla Crear Usuario puede ser usada para crear y configurar una cuenta de usuario normal (no`root`) durante la instalación. Sólo se puede configurar un usuario aquí; si requiere más cuentas, espere a que la instalación se complete, reinicie su sistema y después cree otras cuentas usando bien el comando useradd en un terminal o una utilidad gráfica para administrar cuentas de usuario (por ejemplo, la pantalla Usuarios en el menú Ajustes de GNOME).

No es preciso la creación de una cuenta de usuario para finalizar la instalación; sin embargo, es altamente recomendable. Si usted no crea una, tendrá que registrarse en el sistema como root directamente, lo que no es recomendable.

La pantalla Crear. Use los campos de entrada de texto para crear una cuenta de usuario y configurar sus ajustes.
Figure 26. Crear usuario|

Para configurar una cuenta de usuario, rellene el Nombre completo (por ejemplo, John Smith) y el Nombre de usuario (por ejemplo, jsmith). El nombre de usuario se usará para acceder desde la línea de comandos; si usted instala un entorno gráfico, el administrador gráfico de acceso usará el Nombre completo.

Asegúrese de que la casilla de verificación Se requiere contraseña para usar esta cuenta está habilitada, introduzca una contraseña que desee utilizar para esta cuenta en el campo Contraseña. Los caracteres que escriba se mostrarán como puntos por seguridad. Después, repita la mism contraseña en el campo Confirmar contraseña mas abajo para asegurar que lo ha introducido apropiadamente. Ambas contraseñas introducidas deben ser la misma.

Según introduzca la contraseña será evaluada y el instalador determinará su fortaleza. Si el instalador considera que la contraseña es débil aparecerá un mensaje en la parte inferior de la pantalla, explicando que aspecto de la contraseña que ha elegido es considerado insuficiente. Por ejemplo:

La contraseña que ha suministrado es débil: La contraseña tiene menos de 5 caracteres.

Si aparece un mensaje similar al de arriba, es altamente recomendable que elija una contraseña diferente, más fuerte.

The Make this user administrator check box gives the user you are creatng administrative rights (by adding this user into the wheel group), allowing this user to use the sudo command to perform tasks normally only available to root using only the user password, instead of the root password. This may be more convenient, but can also pose a security risk.

If you give administrator privileges to an user, make sure that the account is protected by a strong password. Never give an user administrator privileges without requiring any password for the account.

See the Fedora Security Guide, available at the https://docs.fedoraproject.org/, for detailed information about password security including guidelines for selecting strong passwords.

To additional settings, click the Advanced button below the password input fields. A new dialog window titled Advanced User Configuration will open. This dialog is described in the following section.

Advanced User Configuration

The Advanced User Configuration dialog allows you to change the following settings for the new user account.

Advanced settings for the new user account.
Figure 27. Advanced User Configuration
  • The user’s Home directory (/home/username by default).

  • The user’s ID (UID). The default value is 1000. UIDs 0-999 are reserved by the system so they can not be assigned to an user.

  • The the group ID (GID) of the user’s default group. The default group name will be the same as the user name, and its default GID is 1000. GIDs 0-999 are reserved by the system so they can not be assigned to an user’s group.

  • The user’s group membership. The user account you are creating will always have one default group membership (the user’s default group with an ID set in the Specify a group ID manually field). In the Group Membership field, you can specify additional groups as a comma-separated list. Groups which do not already exist will be created; you can specify custom GIDs for them in parentheses. If you do not specify a custom GID for a new group, it will be assigned automatically.