Primeiros passos

Silverblue is designed to be easy and straightforward to use, and specialist knowledge should generally not be required. However, Silverblue is built differently from other operating systems, and there are therefore some things that it is useful to know.

Silverblue has different options for installing software, compared with a standard Fedora Workstation (or other package-based Linux distributions). These include:

  • Flatpak apps: this is the primary way that (GUI) apps get installed on Silverblue.

  • Toolbox: Usado principalmente para aplicativos CLI; desenvolvimento, ferramentas de depuração etc.

  • Camada de pacote: a ferramenta rpm-ostree usada para atualizações de host é um sistema de imagem/pacote totalmente híbrido. Por padrão, o sistema opera em modo de imagem pura, mas a disposição de pacotes é útil para coisas como libvirt, drivers etc.

Para informações sobre Flatpak e camada de pacote, veja abaixo.

Consulte a página dedicada do toolbox para começar a usá-lo.

Flatpak

Flatpak is the primary way that apps can be installed on Silverblue (for more information, see flatpak.org). Flatpak works out of the box in Fedora Silverblue, and Fedora provides a small (but growing) collection of apps that can be installed.

A outra fonte principal de aplicativos Flatpak é o Flathub, que fornece um grande repositório de aplicativos Flatpak que podem ser instalados.

Configurando o Flathub

To setup Flathub on Fedora Silverblue, open the Flathub setup page for Fedora and click the “Flathub repository file” button to download the Flathub configuration.

sfg flathub fedora
Figura 1. Página de configuração rápida do Fedora

A popup window will show a download option for the file. The “Open with” option should show “Software Install (default)”. Click on the “OK” button to start the download.

sfg flathub download
Figura 2. Opções de download do Flathub

After the download is complete, a new window will open showing the Flathub repository. This window also shows the source location of the repository to be installed, under the details heading (1). To start the installation of the Flathub repository, click on the “Install” button (2).

sfg flathub install
Figura 3. Janela de instalação do Flathub

Após a conclusão do processo de instalação do repositório, a janela será atualizada para mostrar um botão “Remover” no lugar do botão “Instalar”.

Instalando aplicativos Flatpak do Flathub

Once the Flathub repository has been setup, it can be used to install Flatpak apps. This can be done directly from the Software app, or apps can be browsed on the Flathub website.

If you choose to install apps from the Flathub website, clicking "Install" will download a file which will be opened by the Software app, which can then be used to install the app. For example, to install LibreOffice, you first search for and open the LibreOffice page, and then press the “Install” button (2).

After clicking the “Install” button, a download information window will be shown. Verify the correct Flatpak has been downloaded and then click on the “OK” button to begin installing the LibreOffice application.

sfg libreoffice install
Figura 4. Download do LibreOffice em Flatpak

Once the Flatpak is downloaded, the Software application will open a new window with an “Install” button (2). Click this button to begin installation.

Linha de comando do Flatpak

In addition to using the Software app to install Flatpak apps, it is also possible to use the flatpak command line interface. See the Flatpak documentation for how to do this.

Camada de pacote

Package layering works by modifying your Silverblue installation. As the name implies, it works by extending the packages from which Silverblue is composed.

Bons exemplos de pacotes a serem dispostos em camadas seriam:

  • fish: Um shell Unix alternativo

  • sway: Um compositor Wayland lado a lado

  • libvirt: O daemon libvirt

Most (but not all) RPM packages provided by Fedora can be installed on Silverblue using this method.

Currently, using package layering creates a new "deployment", or bootable filesystem root. It does not affect your current root. This preserves rollback and the transactional model, but means that the system must be rebooted after a package has been layered. If you don’t want to reboot your system for switching to the new deployment, you can use an experimental rpm-ostree ex apply-live command to update the filesystem to see changes from new deployment, but it’s generally expected that you use package layering sparingly, and use flatpak and dnf install inside a toolbox etc.

Package layering is generally done from the command line. However, the Software application does rely on it for installing a small number of apps that are currently difficult to install as Flatpaks.

Instalando pacotes

Packages can be installed on Silverblue using:

$ rpm-ostree install <nome do pacote>

This will download the package and any required dependencies, and recompose your Silverblue image with them. rpm-ostree uses standard Fedora package names, which can be searched using DNF (this is not available on a Silverblue host, but can be used in a toolbox).

Assim que um pacote for instalado dessa maneira, ele será mantido atualizado conforme novas versões forem lançadas e o sistema operacional de base será atualizado.

Substituindo pacotes

In some scenarios, you may want to test out a new version of podman or kernel or other packages that live on the host. The rpm-ostree override command can be used to replace a package with a different version. You can download the package locally and run:

$ rpm-ostree override replace <caminho para o pacote>

Or you can override packages without downloading using links from koji or bodhi. For example:

$ rpm-ostree override replace https://kojipkgs.fedoraproject.org//packages/podman/3.1.2/1.fc34/x86_64/podman-3.1.2-1.fc34.x86_64.rpm https://kojipkgs.fedoraproject.org//packages/podman/3.1.2/1.fc34/x86_64/podman-plugins-3.1.2-1.fc34.x86_64.rpm

Você também pode usar override remove para efetivamente "ocultar" os pacotes; eles ainda existirão na camada de base subjacente, mas não aparecerão na raiz inicializada.

Removing and replacing packages using package layering is not generally recommended. For more information, see the rpm-ostree documentation.